What is Proportion - Definition, Formula, Examples (2023)

Proportion isexplained majorly based on ratio andfractions. Afraction,represented in the form of a/b, while ratio a:b, then a proportion states that two ratios are equal. Here, a and b are any two integers.The ratio and proportion are keyfoundations to understand the various concepts in mathematics as well as in science.

Proportion finds application in solving many daily life problems such as in business while dealing with transactionsor while cooking, etc. It establishes a relation between two or more quantities and thus helps in their comparison.

 1 What isProportion? 2 Continued Proportions 3 Ratios and Proportions 5 Proportion Formula with Examples 6 Types of Proportion 7 Properties of Proportion 8 Difference Between Ratio and Proportion 9 FAQs on Proportion

What isProportion?

Proportion, in general, is referred to asa part, share, or number considered in comparative relation to a whole. Proportion definition says that when two ratios are equivalent, they are in proportion. It is an equation or statement used to depict that two ratios or fractions are equal.

Proportion- Definition

Proportionis a mathematical comparison between two numbers.According toproportion, if two sets of given numbers are increasing or decreasing in the same ratio, then the ratios are said to be directly proportional to each other.Proportions aredenoted usingthe symbol "::"or "=".

Proportion- Example

Two ratios are said to be in proportion when the two ratios are equal. For example,the time taken by train to cover 50km per hour is equal to the time taken by it to cover the distance of 250km for 5 hours. Such as 50km/hr = 250km/5hrs.

Continued Proportions

Any three quantities are said to be in continued proportionif the ratio between the first and the second is equal to the ratio between the second and the third. Similarly, four quantities in continued proportion will have the ratio between the first and second equal to the ratio between the third and fourth.

For example, consider two ratios to bea:bandc:d. In order to find the continued proportion for the two given ratio terms, we will convert their means to a single term/number. Thisin general, would be the LCM of means,and for the given ratio, the LCM of b & c will be bc. Thus, multiplying the first ratio by c and the second ratio by b, we have

• First ratio- ca:bc
• Second ratio- bc:bd

Thus, the continued proportion for the given ratios can be written in the form ofca:bc:bd.

Ratios and Proportions

The ratio is a way of comparing two quantities of the same kind by using division.The ratio formula for two numbers aand bis given by a:b or a/b.Multiply and dividingeach term of a ratio by the same number (non-zero), doesn’t affect the ratio.

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When two or more such ratios are equal, they are said to be in proportion.

Fourth, Third and Mean Proportional

If a : b = c : d, then:

• d is called the fourth proportional to a, b, c.
• c is called the third proportional to a and b.
• The mean proportional between a and b is √(ab).

Tips and Tricks on Proportion

• a/b= c/d⇒b/a = d/c
• a/b= c/d⇒a/c = b/d
• a/b= c/d⇒(a + b)/b = (c + d)/d
• a/b= c/d⇒ (a - b/b = (c -d)/d
• a/(b + c) = b/(c + a) = c/(a + b) and a + b + c ≠0, then a = b = c.
• a/b= c/d⇒(a + b)/(a - b) = (c + d)/(c - d), which is known as componendo -dividendo rule
• If both the numbers aand bare multiplied or divided by the same number in the ratio a:b, then the resulting ratio remains the same as the original ratio.

Proportion Formula with Examples

A proportion formula is an equation that can be solved to get the comparison values. To solve proportion problems, we use the concept that proportion is two ratios that are equal to each other. Wemean this in the sense of two fractions being equal to each other.

Ratio Formula

Assume that, we have any two quantities (ortwo entities) and we have to find the ratio of these two, then the formula for ratio is defined asa:b⇒ a/b, where,

• a and b could be any twoquantities.
• “a” is called the first term orantecedent.
• “b” is called the second term orconsequent.

For example,in ratio 5:9, is represented by 5/9, where 5is antecedent and 9 is consequent. 5:9 = 10:18 = 15:27

Proportion Formula

Now, let us assume that, in proportion, the two ratios area:bandc:d.The two terms‘b’and‘c’are called‘means or mean terms’,whereas the terms‘a’and‘d’are known as ‘extremes or extreme terms.’

a/b = c/d ora:b::c:d.For example,let us consider another example of the number of students in 2classrooms where the ratio of the number of girls to boys is equal. Our first ratio of the number of girls to boys is 2:5 and that of the other is 4:8, then the proportion can be written as: 2:5::4:8 or 2/5 = 4/8. Here, 2 and8 are the extremes, while 5 and4 are the means.

Types of Proportions

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Based on the type of relationship two or more quantities share, the proportion can be classified into different types. There are two types of proportions.

• Direct Proportion
• InverseProportion

Direct Proportion

This type describes the direct relationship between two quantities. In simple words, if one quantity increases, the other quantity also increases and vice-versa. For example, if the speed of a car is increased, it covers more distance in a fixed amount of time. In notation, the direct proportion is written asy ∝ x.

Inverse Proportion

This type describes the indirect relationship between two quantities. In simple words, if one quantity increases, the other quantity decreases and vice-versa. In notation, an inverse proportion is written asy ∝ 1/x. For example, increasing the speed of the car will result in covering a fixed distance in lesstime.

Important Notes

• Proportionis a mathematical comparison between two numbers.
• Basic proportions are of two types: direct proportions and inverseproportions.
• We can apply the concepts of proportions togeography, comparing quantities in physics, dietetics, cooking, etc.

Properties of Proportion

Proportion establishes equivalent relation between two ratios. The properties of proportion that is followed by this relation :

• Addendo – If a : b = c : d, then value of each ratio is a + c : b + d
• Subtrahendo – If a : b = c : d, then value of each ratio is a – c : b – d
• Dividendo – If a : b = c : d, then a – b : b = c – d : d
• Componendo – If a : b = c : d, then a + b : b = c + d : d
• Alternendo – If a : b = c : d, then a : c = b: d
• Invertendo – If a : b = c : d, then b : a = d : c
• Componendo and dividendo – If a : b = c : d, then a + b : a – b = c + d : c – d

Difference Between Ratio and Proportion

Ratio and proportion are closely related concepts. Proportion signifies the equal relationship between two or more ratios. To understand the concept of ratio and proportion, go through the difference between ratio and proportion given here.

 S.No Ratio Proportion 1 The ratio is used to compare the size of two things with the same unit. The proportion is used to express the relation of two ratios. 2 It is expressed using a colon (:) or slash (/). It is expressed using the double colon (::) or equal to the symbol (=) 3 It is an expression. It is an equation. 4 The keyword to distinguish ratio in a problem is “to every”. The keyword to distinguish proportion in a problem is “out of”.

Proportion Related Topics

Given below is the list of topics that are closely connected to Proportion in commercial math. These topics will also give you a glimpse of how such concepts are covered in Cuemath.

Proportion

Inverse Proportion Formula

Direct Proportion Formula

Constant of Proportionality

Basic Proportionality Theorem

Constant of Proportionality

Ratio

Ratio, Proportion, Percentages Formulas

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Percent Proportion

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FAQs on Proportion

What do you Mean by Ratio?

A ratio is a mathematical expression written in the form of a:b, which expresses a fraction of the form a/b, where a and b are any integers.For example, fraction1/3 can be expressed as 1:3 in form of a ratio.

What is Proportion in Math?

Proportionis a mathematical comparison between two numbers.According toproportion, if two sets of given numbers are increasing or decreasing in the same ratio, then the ratios are said to be directly proportional to each other.Proportions aredenoted usingthe symbol ‘::’ or ‘=’. For example, 2:5 ::4:8 or 2/5 = 4/8. Here, 2 and8 are the extremes, while 5 and4 are the means.

How are Ratio andProportion Used in Daily Life?

Ratios andproportionsareusedon adailybasis. Ratios andproportionsare usedin business transactionswhen dealing with money, comparing quantities for the price while shopping, etc.For example, a business might have a ratio for the amount of profit earned per sale of a certain product such as \$5:1, which says that the business gains \$2.50 for each sale.

How do you Know if Two Ratios Form a Proportion?

If two ratios are equivalent to each other, then they are said to be in proportion. For example,the ratios1:2, 2:4,and3:6are equivalent ratios.

How do you Calculate Proportion?

Proportion is calculated using the proportion formula which says- a:b::c:d or a:b = c:d. We read itas “a" is to "b" as "c" is to "d”.

What are Different Types of Proportion?

Based on the type of relationship two or more quantities share, the proportion can be classified into different types. There are two types of proportions.

• Direct Proportion-describes the direct relationship between two quantities. In simple words, if one quantity increases, the other quantity also increases and vice-versa.
• InverseProportion-describes the indirect relationship between two quantities. In simple words, if one quantity increases, the other quantity decreases and vice-versa.

What are the Different Properties of Proportion?

Proportion establishes equivalent relation between two ratios. The properties of proportion that is followed by this relation :

• Addendo – If a : b = c : d, then value of each ratio is a + c : b + d
• Subtrahendo – If a : b = c : d, then value of each ratio is a – c : b – d
• Dividendo – If a : b = c : d, then a – b : b = c – d : d
• Componendo – If a : b = c : d, then a + b : b = c+d : d
• Alternendo – If a : b = c : d, then a : c = b: d
• Invertendo – If a : b = c : d, then b : a = d : c
• Componendo and dividendo – If a : b = c : d, then a + b : a – b = c + d : c – d

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