"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (2023)

Steve A. Johnson and Monica E. McGarrity 2

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Introduction

The southeastern United States is home to a great diversity of snakes. There are about 50 species of snakes (only 6 of which are venomous) that may be found along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states from Louisiana to North Carolina. These snakes live in a variety of upland and wetland habitats and play important roles in the region's ecology. They are both predators and prey and thus form important links in natural food webs.

Regrettably, populations of many species of snakes are declining not only throughout the southeastern United States but also worldwide. These declines are largely due to habitat loss and degradation, high mortality on roads, and pollution associated with development, agriculture and other human activities. In addition, introduction of invasive species, disease, parasitism, and even climate change may exert negative effects on snake populations. Many species of snakes must also withstand pressures caused by unsustainable collection for the pet trade as well as persecution by humans as a result of misinformation or lack of knowledge regarding snakes.

Black-Colored Snakes in the Southeast

Individuals of some snake species look quite similar and may be difficult for those inexperienced with snakes to confidently identify. Among these are several species of southeastern snakes commonly called "black snakes" because of their primarily black coloration. These include the black swampsnake, black ratsnake, ring-necked snake, red-bellied mudsnake, black pinesnake, eastern indigo snake and the southern black racer. The latter two—eastern indigo and black racer—are the species most often referred to as "black snakes".

In addition to those listed above, individuals of several species of water snakes, the eastern hog-nosed snake and the venomous cottonmouth moccasin may be black colored to a great extent, depending on the age of the individual and the habitat in which it is found. The following is a list of black-colored snakes found in the southeastern United States, the habitats they occur in, and some identifying features. The eastern indigo snake and southern black racer are given special consideration.

Black Swampsnake (Seminatrix pygaea)

The black swampsnake inhabits coastal areas from North Carolina to Florida (Figure 1). This small snake (10–15 inches) has smooth scales, a glossy black back and a bright orange belly (Figure 2). Black swampsnakes are only found in and around wetlands: primarily cypress swamps, marshes, and lake edges, where they feed on tadpoles, worms, small fish, frogs, and salamanders. In the United States, many states have lost as much as 80% of their wetlands, resulting in the loss of great numbers of individuals of species that, like the black swampsnake, are restricted to these wetland habitats.

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (1)
"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (2)
(Video) Pearl Jam - Black (Official Audio)

Eastern Ratsnake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis)

The eastern ratsnake varies in color and pattern. Most are striped, but one variant is sometimes referred to as "black ratsnake" because of its mainly black coloration. These snakes are common throughout the eastern United States, although the black color variant does not occur in Florida (Figure 3). This snake can be quite large (it may exceed six feet in length) and has slightly keeled scales (raised ridge along the middle of each scale). Its back is almost entirely black (small flecks of whitish color may show through the black), whereas its chin and belly have a lot of white markings (Figure 4). They are excellent climbers and are found in a great variety of habitats, ranging from pine forests to agricultural fields. They feed primarily on rodents, birds, and birds' eggs.

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (4)

Southern Ring-Necked Snake (Diadophis punctatus punctatus)

Ring-necked snakes are found throughout most of the eastern United States (Figure 5). These diminutive snakes seldom grow longer than 12 inches. Ring-necked snakes have smooth scales and a black or dark gray back, whereas the belly is a bright orange/yellow, often with a row of black spots. As the name implies, there is an obvious ring of orange/yellow around its neck (Figures 6 and 7). When alarmed or threatened, ring-necked snakes coil their tail like a corkscrew. These snakes are fairly secretive and may be found under logs and rocks in moist uplands, where they eat earthworms, slugs, small salamanders, and small snakes. They are common in suburban neighborhoods.

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (5)
"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (6)
"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (7)

Eastern Mudsnake (Farancia abacura)

Mudsnakes are found in coastal areas and river basins in the southeastern United States (Figure 8). They can grow to over six and a half feet long but are very docile snakes despite their large size and pose no threat to people. They are thick bodied with smooth, glossy scales and a pointed tail tip (Figure 9). The back is black, whereas the belly is a checkerboard of black and a reddish pink color that extends up onto the sides of the snake. Rarely the reddish-pink color is lacking and the belly markings are white. Mudsnakes are highly aquatic and may be found in swamps, lakes, and rivers throughout the Southeast, where they feed primarily on large, eel-like aquatic salamanders.

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (8)
"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (9)
(Video) Black (Live) - MTV Unplugged - Pearl Jam

Black Pinesnake (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi)

The black pinesnake is one of a group of closely related snake species (includes other pinesnakes, bull- and gophersnakes) with a fairly broad geographical range. However, the range of the black pinesnake is relatively limited, and this species is only found in certain parts of the southeastern United States (Figure 10). Black pinesnakes have keeled scales and a nearly uniform black or dark brown color on their backs and bellies with a faint blotched pattern often seen toward the tail (Figure 11). Black pinesnakes, like the other species of pinesnakes, have a distinctive, cone-shaped scale on the tip of their snout. These snakes may grow as long as six feet. When they feel threatened, pinesnakes will coil and hiss loudly. They prefer dry pinelands with sandy soils and are excellent burrowers, spending much of their lives underground in mammal burrows. They feed mainly on mammals but will also eat birds.

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (10)
"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (11)

Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon couperi)

Eastern indigo snakes are found from southeastern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi south to the Upper Florida Keys (Figure 12). Some scientists believe there may be two, very similar, species of this snake, but we treat it as a single species. These are magnificent, thick-bodied snakes that can grow to over eight feet long, making them the largest native snake in North America (north of Mexico). Their smooth scales are a glossy bluish-black color, including the belly, although the chin and throat may range from light cream to orange or deep maroon (Figure 13). They are usually very docile, but when threatened may hiss loudly and shake their tail, making a rattling sound if the snake is in dry leaves or debris.

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (12)
"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (13)

Eastern indigo snakes inhabit pine forests, hardwood hammocks, scrub, and other uplands. They also rely heavily on a variety of wetland habitats for feeding and temperature regulation needs and are able to swim, even though they are not considered aquatic. In drier upland sites, they inhabit the burrows of the gopher tortoise, which has resulted in the colloquial name of "blue gopher." Eastern indigos are well known and respected for their ability to eat venomous snakes, such as rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads. In addition, they feed on other non-venomous snakes, turtles, rodents, and frogs.

Habitat loss from development and agriculture, habitat degradation due to lack of fire as well as collection for the pet trade and other human activities have led to significant reductions in populations of eastern indigo snakes, which are protected throughout their range by state and federal laws. Eastern indigo snakes have been listed as a threatened species by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission since 1971 and by the US Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act since 1978, and it is illegal to handle, harass, kill, capture, keep, or sell them without a federal permit. However, despite these protections, habitat loss and degradation throughout their range continue to cause the decline of this important snake. You should consider yourself lucky if you see one of these beautiful "black snakes."

Southern Black Racer (Coluber constrictor priapus)

Black racers, also known as North American racers, are a group of closely related subspecies that are similar in appearance and range across the eastern half of the United States (Figure 14). The southern black racer, along with several other subspecies of racers, is the true black snake of the southeastern United States. These snakes are long and slender; the largest reaching up to six feet (most are less than four feet long). They have smooth scales and range from jet black to dark gray on their backs and bellies, with chins and throats that are lighter in color or white (Figure 15).

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (14)
(Video) Eating Only ONE Color of Food for 100 Hours! (Black VS Pink)
"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (15)

Young black racers, though thin like the adults, have an overall appearance much different than adults. Juvenile black racers have a series of reddish to brown-colored blotches down the middle of their backs on a background color of gray. They also have abundant small, dark specks on their sides and bellies (Figure 16). Because of these mid-dorsal blotches, juveniles are sometimes confused with the venomous pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius), which also has blotches down the center of its back. However, pygmy rattlesnakes are much thicker and have blocky heads with a dark band from the eye to the corner of the jaw.

"Black Snakes": Identification and Ecology (16)

Despite their scientific name (Coluber constrictor), black racers do not always constrict their prey but rather use their speed to chase down a prey animal, grab it with their strong jaws, and swallow it alive. Racers are harmless to people and generally attempt to make a speedy escape when approached. However, if they feel threatened and are unable to flee, they may vigorously shake their tail (making a rattling sound on dry leaves), defecate on their captor, or even bite if handled.

Black racers inhabit a great variety of natural habitats ranging from pine forests to the Florida Everglades. They are active during the day and are one of the most commonly encountered snakes in suburban yards and parks. As their name implies, they are swift and agile. They spend most of their lives on the ground, yet are excellent climbers and may be found in shrubs and small trees. Black racers eat a variety of prey items including frogs, lizards, mice, rats, small snakes, and even birds' eggs.

Summary

In spite of great variation in body size, habitat use, diet, and behavior, the lack of bold, readily apparent distinguishing marks can make identification of southeastern "black snakes" a daunting task for those inexperienced with snakes. Nonetheless, an informed observer can readily recognize the bright orange belly of the black swamp snake or the namesake ringed neck of the ring-necked snake, and may quickly learn to distinguish between the smooth, glossy sheen of the eastern indigo or black racer and the keeled, somewhat dull look of the black pine and black rat snakes. These snakes may seem nondescript at first glance, though knowledge of these and other more subtle, yet telltale characteristics will assist in the rewarding task of becoming familiar with the "black snakes" of the southeastern United States.

Fortunately, there are a variety of books and websites that are extremely helpful references for use in determining the identity of an unknown non-venomous or venomous snake. In addition, these references will assist you in learning even more about the ecology of our native snakes and may help to further your understanding of the threats facing these species and the importance of protecting them. Certainly, knowledge is the key to understanding that the only good snake is NOT a dead snake, and that these species play vital roles in the habitats in which they are found—an important lesson that must be learned and passed on before it is too late for already threatened species like the eastern indigo snake.

Snake Identification Resources

Websites

UF Wildlife—Online guide to Florida Snakes http://ufwildlife.ifas.ufl.edu/snakes/florida.shtml

Florida Museum of Natural History—Online guide to Florida Snakes http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/florida-amphibians-reptiles/snakes/

University of Florida EDIS Documents—Venomous Snakes

(Video) 24 hours + of pure black screen in HD!

    • Dealing with Venomous Snakes in Florida School Yards https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw225

    • Emergency Snakebite Action Plan https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw226

    • Preventing Encounters Between Children and Snakes https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw227

    • Recognizing Florida's Venomous Snakes https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw229

University of Georgia—Snakes of Georgia and South Carolina http://www.uga.edu/srelherp/snakes/index.htm

Outdoor Alabama—Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources snake page https://www.outdooralabama.com/reptiles/snakes

Books and Guides

Johnson, S. A. and M. McGarrity. 2009.Identification Guide to the Snakes of Florida. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://ifasbooks.ifas.ufl.edu/p-507-identification-guide-to-the-snakes-of-florida.aspx

Gibbons, W. and M. Dorcas. 2005.Snakes of the Southeast.University of Georgia Press, 253 pp.

Carmichael, P. and W. Williams. 1991.Florida's Fabulous Reptiles and Amphibians.Tampa: World Publications. (120 pp.)

Powell R., R. Conant and J. T. Collins. 2016. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 494 pp.

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FAQs

Are black snakes good to have around? ›

Black rat snakes are extremely beneficial since they eat large amounts of rats, mice, and other pest animals. Farmers appreciate having snakes around for this reason.

What is the meaning of a black snake? ›

Black snakes are omens of good fortune. Like most good fortune, they are inconspicuous and rare. So, when a specimen presents itself, it behooves one to take notice.

What time of day are black snakes most active? ›

In the spring and fall they are moving around and sunning themselves during the day, while in summer they are more active at night. As the cold weather sets in, black rat snakes tend to gather in large numbers and share winter dens, with members of their own and other species.

What is the name of a black snake? ›

These include the black swampsnake, black ratsnake, ring-necked snake, red-bellied mudsnake, black pinesnake, eastern indigo snake and the southern black racer. The latter two—eastern indigo and black racer—are the species most often referred to as "black snakes".

What do black snakes hate? ›

Garlic & Onions: The sulfonic acid in garlic and onions (the same chemical that makes us cry when we chop onions) repels snakes. Mix these with rock salt and sprinkle them around your home and yard for effectiveness.

What attracts black snakes to your house? ›

Snakes enter a building because they're lured in by dark, damp, cool areas or in search of small animals, like rats and mice, for food. Snakes can be discouraged from entering a home in several ways. Keeping the vegetation around the house cut short can make the home less attractive to small animals and snakes.

Are black snakes harmless? ›

Black snakes are not venomous nor aggressive, but if threatened or cornered they may bite as a last resort. Black snakes are also excellent swimmers. The most intimidating feature of black snakes is their size as some can reach eight feet in length.

What do you do if you see a black snake? ›

Leave it alone. Snakes are generally shy and will not attack unless provoked, so it's best to leave them be. If you see a snake inside your home, get all people and pets out of the room immediately. Shut the door and fill the gap underneath with a towel, then call a professional snake catcher for assistance.

How do you get rid of black snakes? ›

Ammonia and vinegar are some of the most effective and safe natural snake repellents, as they keep snakes away without the use of harsh chemicals. Mix either in a small spray bottle and apply around the outside of your home, lawn, or garden.

What month do black snakes lay eggs? ›

Snakes lay their eggs in the early part of summer between June and July.

What time of year do black snakes have babies? ›

After black rat snakes mate in the spring, the female lays between five and 30 eggs in early summer. The female usually lays her eggs in a pile of rotting vegetation or manure or in a rotting log. After a period of around 60 days, baby black snakes measuring around 12 inches in length hatch from the eggs.

Where do black snakes go in the winter? ›

When cold weather hits, snakes must find shelter from the temperatures by burrowing in holes or caves, under logs or rocks, in tree stumps, or by making their way into basements, crawlspaces, garages, barns, sheds, wood piles, and even car engines.

What do black snakes eat? ›

Facts About Black Snakes

Diet: Mostly eat rodents, lizards, birds and bird eggs. The Eastern rat snake, like the Eastern racer, is a constrictor. They can climb trees and, if you don't protect your birdhouses with baffles, they will invade nests.

Are black snakes poisonous to humans? ›

Although black snakes can bite in defense, they're not poisonous. Moreover, the bite from these snakes is not fatal, but it can hurt a good deal. Black snakes can be scary as they're large species, but they don't deliver poison or venom.

What happens if a black snake bites you? ›

Rhabdomyolysis: Black Snake venom is strongly myolytic and may lead to rhabdomyolysis. If not treated adequately, a bite victim may develop massive myoglobinuria which may subsequently result in oliguria or acute renal failure. If severe, the patient may require dialysis.

What chemical kills snakes instantly? ›

Calcium cyanide is a good chemical for killing snakes taking refuge in burrows, while there are several gases that sometimes work in fumigating dens.

Will vinegar keep snakes away? ›

The verdict? White vinegar may repel snakes – perhaps they hate the smell. However, it's a good idea to have a back-up plan in the (quite likely) event that it doesn't work.

What smells will keep snakes away? ›

There are many scents snakes don't like including smoke, cinnamon, cloves, onions, garlic, and lime. You can use oils or sprays containing these fragrances or grow plants featuring these scents.

How do I snake proof my yard? ›

You want to make your property as inhospitable as possible, so concentrate on ridding it of any places snakes would consider good spots to hide. Remove debris, from piles of boards, tin, sticks and leaves to flat boats on the ground and piles of bricks or stone, AWR advised, and keep vegetation cut back.

Can snakes enter a house through the toilet? ›

According to experts, unfortunately, it can happen. Not only can snakes come up through the toilet, but other critters like rats, squirrels, and tree frogs can too. However, this is not a very common occurrence, so you can breathe a sigh of relief.

Should I be afraid of a black snake? ›

Humans shouldn't be afraid of black snakes as they are not dangerous. They may bite, but only when provoked or cornered. The black snake is a popular breed of snake to be kept as a pet. Western rat snakes are calm, shy, and docile when handled from a young age.

Are black snakes active at night? ›

They are not active at night. They eat a wide variety of prey including insects, lizards, snakes, birds, rodents, and amphibians. In turn, they are preyed upon by a variety of predatory birds, mammals and snakes such as kingsnakes and larger racers. When captured, prey are not constricted and are consumed alive.

Where does a black snake live? ›

They can be found in hard-wood forests, swamps, timbered upland, farmland, barns, and old fields. They are most active during the day, but still prefer to stay nearby protective cover. Black rat snakes hibernate in the winter, often with other snakes such as the venomous rattlesnake or copperhead.

Do snakes return to the same place? ›

Relocating snakes short distances is ineffective because they will likely find their way back to their home range. If you have one snake in your yard, that means there are others around!

Does one snake mean more? ›

Remember snakes do not usually live in colonies, so you could have a solitary snake. Just because you saw one, there is no need to panic and think that you have a house infested with millions of snakes.

Where do black snakes like to hide? ›

In addition to hiding in tall grass, snakes will hide in yard debris. Tall grasses and shrubs are two ideal hiding spots for these reptiles. They also tend to hide away in storage sheds, piles of wood, or in fallen branches and limbs.

How do I get rid of snakes permanently? ›

When in doubt, call animal control for help or your local pest control specialist for long-term management.
  1. Spray the Hose. ...
  2. Trap with a Garbage Can. ...
  3. Use Snake Repellent. ...
  4. Eliminate Standing Water. ...
  5. Set a Trap. ...
  6. Remove Shelter. ...
  7. Fill in Burrows. ...
  8. Keep Your Grass Short.
2 Aug 2022

Do mothballs keep black snakes away? ›

Mothballs are commonly thought to repel snakes, but they are not intended to be used this way and have little effect on snakes.

Will moth balls keep black snakes away? ›

Do mothballs repel snakes? Moth balls are common old-time home remedy to keep snakes away, but this old wives' tale doesn't stand the test of science. Mothballs don't repel snakes. Snakes “smell” with their tongues, so methods like mothballs that rely on odors are unlikely to deter them.

What month does snakes go away? ›

Do snakes come out in the fall? Snake activity picks up as temperatures fall in late summer and early autumn before they go into hibernation, which can be as early as September or as late as December. On warm days, snakes in brumation sometimes come out of their dens to bask in the sunshine.

Do black snakes come out in winter? ›

Thankfully, there is no such thing as a “snow snake.” Snakes are not active in winter and are certainly not looking to bite. In winter, a snake may stir now and again, maybe to seek out water to re-hydrate. They will then return to their hibernaculum to re-warm themselves.

What temperature do black snakes like? ›

Best Temperatures for Snakes

At cold temperatures, these reactions are slow and at warm temperatures they are fast. These chemical reactions are optimal at body temperatures are between 70 - 90 degrees Farenheit. Below 60 degrees Farenheit, snakes become sluggish.

Do black snakes climb? ›

excellent at climbing trees and they are the longest. snake in PA reaching lengths of 8 feet long.

What is the difference between a black snake and a black racer? ›

Black racers have smooth scales in a matte black shade, while black rat snakes have slightly textured scales in a glossy black color in addition to a vague pattern on their back. Both of these snakes have white underbellies, but black rat snakes have significantly more whites when compared to black racers.

Do black snakes eat mice? ›

Black rat snakes mostly eat small rodents, such as mice, rats, moles and chipmunks. They are also known to feed on small lizards, frogs and bird eggs. They kill their prey by constriction, which means the snake coils its body around the prey and holds on until the prey suffocates to death.

What time of year do black snakes shed? ›

The black rat snake emerges from hibernation in spring and it usually will shed its skin within the first week of emerging and that's when they begin to seek its first meal. Black rat snakes are also ready to mate at this time.

Do black snakes lay eggs or give live birth? ›

NARRATOR: Like most snakes, the pilot black snake lays eggs. Males and females mate after emerging from hibernation at the end of the cold season. Subsequently, during the summer, the female deposits a clutch of eggs.

What do snake droppings look like? ›

When snakes excrete waste, it is actually a mixture of feces and urine that looks white and is more of a liquid than a solid, much like bird droppings. The pests' waste may contain bones, hair, scales, and other indigestible materials leftover from meals.

Are snakes active at night? ›

Some are active at night, others during the day. Snakes are predators and eat a wide variety of animals, including rodents, insects, birds' eggs and young birds. Snakes are cold-blooded and must move to a suitable surrounding environment to regulate their body temperature.

Can you smell a snake in your house? ›

Spotting a snake

The only way people will know whether there is a snake in their house is by seeing it, Sollenberger said. Snakes don't really have an odor and don't really make sounds so it would be impossible to smell them or hear them.

Can a black snake hurt a cat? ›

Snakes will act defensively and may attempt to attack your cat if they feel threatened. Snakes are opportunistic animals, which means that they will attack small animals if given the opportunity. Domestic cats can qualify, and a snake might kill and eat a cat if they see the opportunity.

Will a snake bite you in your sleep? ›

Unlike most venomous snakes, which tend to bite people who are either handling them or who surprise them, the large Australian mulga snake has also been found to attack people who are asleep.

Are snakes afraid of humans? ›

According to experts, the best thing to do if you come across any snake, whether it's venomous or not, is to keep a good distance. You should let them be because in most cases they're probably more afraid of you.

Is there a snake repellent? ›

Mothballs are one of the most popular snake repellent products. The active ingredient in mothballs is either naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene.

Is it good to have snakes around your house? ›

Keeping Good Snakes Around

Having some snakes in your yard is a great sign that you have a healthy environment. Snakes are members of the basic food chain to help control unwanted pests and supply food for larger predators like birds. Harmless snakes may even eat venomous snakes, further ensuring a safe yard.

Will black snakes keep other snakes away? ›

Myth #1: They keep poisonous snakes away

Having a black snake won't guarantee that there are no other snakes around. The black racer snake in North America does occasionally kill and eat other snakes. Black rat snakes, however, aren't known for snake killing.

Are snakes good to have around? ›

In fact, snakes are extremely beneficial, eating unwanted rats and mice around the home, the same rodents who harbour ticks bearing lyme disease. They play a very important role in the food chain as their ambushing techniques allow them to prey on otherwise elusive pests like the grasshopper.

What should I do if I see a black snake? ›

Leave it alone. Snakes are generally shy and will not attack unless provoked, so it's best to leave them be. If you see a snake inside your home, get all people and pets out of the room immediately. Shut the door and fill the gap underneath with a towel, then call a professional snake catcher for assistance.

What can I put in my yard to keep snakes away? ›

Natural repellents including sulfur, clove and cinnamon oil, and vinegar may help repel snakes. Pour these substances around the perimeter of your property, any place you have noticed snake activity.

Does mowing keep snakes away? ›

Mow grass often and keep it fairly short.

Snakes are less likely to reside and move through short grass because it increases their exposure to predators such as owls and hawks. Shorter grass also makes snakes easier to spot.

Do moth balls keep snakes away? ›

Mothballs are commonly thought to repel snakes, but they are not intended to be used this way and have little effect on snakes.

What is the most common snake to find in your backyard? ›

Garter Snakes

They are native to both North and Central America and are the most common snakes found in gardens and yards. They're also called grass snakes and are distinguished by 1 or 3 long, yellow to red stripes that are often checkered.

What do snakes eat in your yard? ›

Often called “gardener snakes,” they earn that name by eating grasshoppers, slugs, grubs, and other insects. A large adult garter snake may even eat mice. (Unfortunately, they also eat some critters such as frogs, toads, salamanders, and earthworms.) To eat large prey, they unhinge their jaw from their skull.

What do snakes do for the ecosystem? ›

Snakes are a Natural Form of Pest Control.

As predators, snakes keep prey populations in balance. For example, rodents reproduce exponentially in the absence of predators, as long as there is plenty of food. This is particularly true in environments dominated by humans.

Do black snakes climb trees? ›

excellent at climbing trees and they are the longest. snake in PA reaching lengths of 8 feet long.

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