Hospitalizations Associated with COVID-19 Among Children... (2022)

On September 3, 2021, this report was posted online as an MMWR Early Release.

Miranda J. Delahoy, PhD1,2; Dawud Ujamaa, MS1,3; Michael Whitaker, MPH1; Alissa O’Halloran, MSPH1; Onika Anglin, MPH1,3; Erin Burns1; Charisse Cummings, MPH1; Rachel Holstein, MPH1; Anita K. Kambhampati, MPH1; Jennifer Milucky, MSPH1; Kadam Patel, MPH1,3; Huong Pham, MPH1; Christopher A. Taylor, PhD1; Shua J. Chai, MD4,5; Arthur Reingold, MD4,6; Nisha B. Alden, MPH7; Breanna Kawasaki, MPH7; James Meek, MPH8; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, MPH8; Evan J. Anderson, MD9,10,11; Kyle P. Openo, DrPH9,10,11; Kenzie Teno, MPH12; Andy Weigel, LMSW12; Sue Kim, MPH13; Lauren Leegwater, MPH13; Erica Bye, MPH14; Kathryn Como-Sabetti, MPH14; Susan Ropp, PhD15; Dominic Rudin16; Alison Muse, MPH17; Nancy Spina, MPH17; Nancy M. Bennett, MD18; Kevin Popham, MPH19; Laurie M. Billing, MPH20; Eli Shiltz, MPH20; Melissa Sutton, MD21; Ann Thomas, MD21; William Schaffner, MD22; H. Keipp Talbot, MD22; Melanie T. Crossland, MPH23; Keegan McCaffrey24; Aron J. Hall, DVM1; Alicia M. Fry, MD1; Meredith McMorrow, MD1; Carrie Reed, DSc1; Shikha Garg, MD1*; Fiona P. Havers, MD1*; COVID-NET Surveillance Team (View author affiliations)

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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

COVID-19 can cause severe illness in children and adolescents.

What is added by this report?

Weekly COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates among children and adolescents rose nearly five-fold during late June–mid-August 2021, coinciding with increased circulation of the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. The proportions of hospitalized children and adolescents with severe disease were similar before and during the period of Delta predominance. Hospitalization rates were 10 times higher among unvaccinated than among fully vaccinated adolescents.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Preventive measures to reduce transmission and severe outcomes in children and adolescents are critical, including vaccination, universal masking in schools, and masking by persons aged ≥2 years in other indoor public spaces and child care centers.

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Figure 1

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(Video) Rise in hospitalization among kids with COVID-19
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Although COVID-19–associated hospitalizations and deaths have occurred more frequently in adults, COVID-19 can also lead to severe outcomes in children and adolescents (1,2). Schools are opening for in-person learning, and many prekindergarten children are returning to early care and education programs during a time when the number of COVID-19 cases caused by the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is increasing.§ Therefore, it is important to monitor indicators of severe COVID-19 among children and adolescents. This analysis uses Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) data to describe COVID-19–associated hospitalizations among U.S. children and adolescents aged 0–17 years. During March 1, 2020–August 14, 2021, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19–associated hospitalizations was 49.7 per 100,000 children and adolescents. The weekly COVID-19–associated hospitalization rate per 100,000 children and adolescents during the week ending August 14, 2021 (1.4) was nearly five times the rate during the week ending June 26, 2021 (0.3); among children aged 0–4 years, the weekly hospitalization rate during the week ending August 14, 2021, was nearly 10 times that during the week ending June 26, 2021.** During June 20–July 31, 2021, the hospitalization rate among unvaccinated adolescents (aged 12–17 years) was 10.1 times higher than that among fully vaccinated adolescents. Among all hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19, the proportions with indicators of severe disease (such as intensive care unit [ICU] admission) after the Delta variant became predominant (June 20–July 31, 2021) were similar to those earlier in the pandemic (March 1, 2020–June 19, 2021). Implementation of preventive measures to reduce transmission and severe outcomes in children is critical, including vaccination of eligible persons, universal mask wearing in schools, recommended mask wearing by persons aged ≥2 years in other indoor public spaces and child care centers,†† and quarantining as recommended after exposure to persons with COVID-19.§§

COVID-NET conducts population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalizations in 99 counties across 14 states¶¶ (1). Residents of the surveillance catchment area who received positive molecular or rapid antigen detection test results for SARS-CoV-2 during hospitalization or within 14 days before admission were classified as having COVID-19–associated hospitalizations. Unadjusted age-specific cumulative and weekly COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 children and adolescents residing in the catchment area) during March 1, 2020–August 14, 2021, were calculated by dividing the total number of hospitalized patients by the National Center for Health Statistics’ population estimates within each age group for the counties included in the surveillance catchment area.*** Among adolescents, who are currently eligible for vaccination††† (3), age-specific hospitalization rates during June 20–July 31, 2021, were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, which was determined for both hospitalized patients and the catchment area population using state immunization information systems data.§§§ Because the number of fully vaccinated persons in the underlying population changed weekly, incidence (cases per 100,000 person-weeks) was calculated by dividing the total number of vaccinated hospitalized adolescents by the sum of vaccinated adolescents in the underlying population each week; the same method was used to calculate incidence among unvaccinated adolescents.¶¶¶ Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Trained surveillance staff members conducted medical chart abstractions for all pediatric COVID-NET patients using a standardized case report form. Data on the following measures of severe disease were collected: median hospital length of stay, ICU admission, highest level of respiratory support received (i.e., invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], bilevel positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure, or high-flow nasal cannula), vasopressor use, and in-hospital death. Deaths occurring after hospital discharge were not included in this analysis. To assess COVID-19 severity among hospitalized children and adolescents in the setting of widespread Delta variant circulation, the proportions with measures of severe disease were compared between the periods before (March 1, 2020–June 19, 2021) and after (June 20–July 31, 2021) the Delta variant became the predominant strain circulating in the United States**** (4). A Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare medians; chi square or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare proportions. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute); statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.††††

During March 1, 2020–August 14, 2021, COVID-NET identified 49.7 cumulative COVID-19–associated hospitalizations per 100,000 children and adolescents (Figure 1); rates were highest among children aged 0–4 years (69.2) and adolescents aged 12–17 years (63.7) and lowest among children aged 5–11 years (24.0). Weekly hospitalization rates were at their lowest in 2021 during the weeks ending June 12–July 3 (0.3 per 100,000 children and adolescents each week) (Figure 2). During a subsequent 6-week period after the Delta variant became predominant, rates rose each week to 1.4 during the week ending August 14, 2021, which was 4.7 times the rate during the week ending June 26, 2021 and approached the peak hospitalization rate of 1.5 observed during the week ending January 9, 2021.§§§§ Weekly rates increased among all age groups; the sharpest increase occurred among children aged 0–4 years, for whom the rate during the week ending August 14, 2021 (1.9) was nearly 10 times that during the week ending June 26, 2021 (0.2). During June 20–July 31, 2021, among 68 adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 whose vaccination status had been ascertained, 59 were unvaccinated, five were partially vaccinated, and four were fully vaccinated; the hospitalization rate among unvaccinated adolescents was 0.8 per 100,000 person-weeks (95% CI=0.6–0.9), compared with 0.1 (95% CI=0.0–0.1) in fully vaccinated adolescents (rate ratio=10.1; 95% CI=3.7–27.9).

Among 3,116 hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19 during March 1, 2020–June 19, 2021, for whom complete clinical data were available,¶¶¶¶ 827 (26.5%) were admitted to an ICU, 190 (6.1%) required IMV, and 21 (0.7%) died. Among 164 hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19 during June 20–July 31, 2021, for whom complete clinical data were available,***** 38 (23.2%) were admitted to an ICU, 16 (9.8%) required IMV, and three (1.8%) died. The differences in these indicators of severe disease between the two periods were not statistically significant (Table).

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Discussion

Weekly COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates rose rapidly during late June to mid-August 2021 among U.S. children and adolescents aged 0–17 years; by mid-August, the rate among children aged 0–4 years was nearly 10 times the rate 7 weeks earlier. This increase coincides with widespread circulation of the highly transmissible Delta variant. COVID-NET data indicate that vaccination was highly effective in preventing COVID-19–associated hospitalizations in adolescents during late June to late July 2021. Since March 2020, approximately one in four hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19 has required intensive care, although the proportions with indicators of severe disease during the period when the Delta variant predominated were generally similar compared with those earlier in the pandemic. The observed indicators of severe COVID-19 among children and adolescents, as well as the potential for serious longer-term sequelae (e.g., multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children) documented elsewhere (5,6), underscore the importance of implementing multipronged preventive measures to reduce severe COVID-19 disease, including nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination among eligible age groups.†††††

Among adolescents aged 12–17 years, the only pediatric age group for whom a COVID-19 vaccine is currently approved, hospitalization rates were approximately 10 times higher in unvaccinated compared with fully vaccinated adolescents, indicating that vaccines were highly effective at preventing serious COVID-19 illness in this age group during a period when the Delta variant predominated. As of July 31, 2021, 32% of U.S. adolescents had completed a COVID-19 vaccination series (7); increasing vaccination coverage among adolescents, as well as expanding eligibility for COVID-19 vaccination to younger age groups if approved and recommended, is expected to reduce severe COVID-19–associated outcomes among children and adolescents.

Similar to another recent analysis, COVID-NET data suggest that indicators of severe disease among hospitalized children during an early period when the Delta variant predominated were generally similar to those observed earlier in the pandemic (8). Trends in outcomes will need to be monitored closely as more data become available. For example, whereas the point estimate of the proportion of hospitalized children who required IMV during the period of Delta predominance (9.8%) was higher than that earlier in the pandemic (6.1%), the comparison of these proportions was based on a relatively small number of children (16) requiring IMV during the period of Delta predominance, and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Further, surveillance data limited to hospitalized persons cannot be used to assess whether increases in COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates among children and adolescents are due to increased community SARS-CoV-2 transmission or increased disease severity caused by the Delta variant.

The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, children and adolescents meeting COVID-NET criteria with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result might have been hospitalized primarily for reasons other than COVID-19 (2), resulting in potential overestimations of hospitalization rates. Second, COVID-19–associated hospitalizations might have been missed because of testing practices and test availability. Third, the number of hospitalized children with severe outcomes was small during June 20–July 31, 2021, limiting comparisons between periods before and during Delta variant predominance. Fourth, the number of fully vaccinated hospitalized adolescents remained low at the time of reporting, and hospitalization rates stratified by vaccination status are subject to error if misclassification of vaccination status occurred. Finally, the COVID-NET catchment areas include approximately 10% of the U.S. population; thus, findings might not be nationally generalizable.

Rates of COVID-19–associated hospitalization among children and adolescents increased rapidly from late June to mid-August 2021, coinciding with predominance of the Delta variant. With more activities resuming, including in-person school attendance and a return of younger children to congregate child care settings, preventive measures to reduce the incidence of severe COVID-19 are critical. Universal indoor masking is recommended for all teachers, staff members, students, and visitors in kindergarten through grade 12 schools, regardless of vaccination status.§§§§§ CDC recommends that persons aged ≥2 years who are unvaccinated, as well as vaccinated persons in areas of substantial or high transmission, wear masks in all indoor public spaces.¶¶¶¶¶ CDC also recommends that child care centers serving children too young to be vaccinated consider implementing universal indoor masking for persons aged ≥2 years.****** All persons who are eligible should receive COVID-19 vaccines to reduce the risk for severe disease for themselves and others with whom they come into contact, including children who are currently too young to be vaccinated.

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Acknowledgments

Brooke Heidenga, Joelle Nadle, Susan Brooks, Alison Ryan, California Emerging Infections Program; Tessa Carter, Paula Clogher, Maria Correa, Daewi Kim, Carol Lyons, Amber Maslar, Adam Misiorski, Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Yale School of Public Health; Jeremiah Williams, Siyeh Gretzinger, Jana Manning, Asmith Joseph, Allison Roebling, Chandler Surell, Stephanie Lehman, Taylor Eisenstein, Gracie Chambers, Grayson Kallas, Annabel Patterson, Georgia Emerging Infections Program, Georgia Department of Health; Foundation for Atlanta Veterans Education and Research, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Maya L. Monroe, Patricia A. Ryan, Alicia Brooks, Elisabeth Vaeth, Cindy Zerrlaut, David Blythe, Maryland Department of Health; Rachel Park, Michelle Wilson, Maryland Emerging Infections Program — The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Jim Collins, Shannon Johnson, Justin Henderson, Libby Reeg, Alexander Kohrman, Val Tellez Nunez, Sierra Peguies-Khan, Chloe Brown, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services; Austin Bell, Kayla Bilski, Emma Contestabile, Claire Henrichsen, Amanda Gordon, Cynthia Kenyon, Melissa McMahon, Katherine Schleiss, Samantha Siebman, Emily Holodnick, Lisa Nguyen, Kristen Ehresmann, Minnesota Department of Health; Emily B. Hancock, Yadira Salazar-Sanchez, Nancy Eisenberg, Melissa Christian, Mayvilynne Poblete, Wickliffe Omondi, New Mexico Emerging Infections Program; Suzanne McGuire, Katarina Manzi, Grant Barney, New York State Department of Health; Virginia Cafferky, Christine Long, RaeAnne Kurtz, Maria Gaitan, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Nicholas Fisher, Krista Lung, Maya Sculllin, Ohio Department of Health; Ama Owusu-Dommey, Breanna McArdle, Emily Youngers, Sam Hawkins, Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority; Kylie Seeley, Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine; Katie Dyer, Karen Leib, Terri McMinn, Danielle Ndi, John Ujwok, Gail Hughett, Emmanuel Sackey, Kathy Billings, Anise Elie, Manideepthi Pemmaraju, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Amanda Carter, Andrea Price, Andrew Haraghey, Ashley Swain, Caitlin Shaw, Ian Buchta, Jake Ortega, Laine McCullough, Ryan Chatelain, Tyler Riedesel, Salt Lake County Health Department; Alvin Shultz, Robert W. Pinner, Rainy Henry, Sonja Mali Nti-Berko, Susan Gantt, CDC; Mimi Huynh, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.

COVID-NET Surveillance Team

Pam Daily Kirley, California Emerging Infections Program; Sarah McLafferty, Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment; Isaac Armistead, Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment; Emily Fawcett, Georgia Emerging Infections Program, Georgia Department of Health and Foundation for Atlanta Veterans Education and Research, Decatur, Georgia, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia; Katelyn Ward, Georgia Emerging Infections Program Georgia Department of Health, and Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Ruth Lynfield, Minnesota Department of Health; Richard Danila, Minnesota Department of Health; Sarah Khanlian, New Mexico Emerging Infections Program; Kathy Angeles, New Mexico Emerging Infections Program; Kerianne Engesser, New York State Department of Health; Adam Rowe, New York State Department of Health; Christina Felsen, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York; Sophrena Bushey, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York; Nasreen Abdullah, Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority; Nicole West, Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority; Tiffanie Markus, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Mary Hill, Salt Lake County Health Department, Salt Lake City, Utah; Andrea George, Salt Lake County Health Department, Salt Lake City, Utah

(Video) COVID hospitalizations surge among U.S. children

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Corresponding author: Miranda J. Delahoy; MDelahoy@cdc.gov.

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1CDC COVID-19 Response Team; 2Epidemic Intelligence Service, CDC; 3General Dynamics Information Technology, Atlanta, Georgia; 4California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland, California; 5Career Epidemiology Field Officer Program, CDC; 6University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California; 7Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment; 8Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut; 9Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; 10Georgia Emerging Infections Program, Georgia Department of Health; 11Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia; 12Iowa Department of Health; 13Michigan Department of Health and Human Services; 14Minnesota Department of Health; 15New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, New Mexico; 16New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; 17New York State Department of Health; 18University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York; 19Rochester Emerging Infections Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York; 20Ohio Department of Health; 21Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority; 22Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; 23Salt Lake County Health Department, Salt Lake City, Utah; 24Utah Department of Health.

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References

  1. Kim L, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, et al.; COVID-NET Surveillance Team. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of children aged <18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19—COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1–July 25, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:1081–8. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e3external icon PMID:32790664external icon
  2. Havers FP, Whitaker M, Self JL, et al.; COVID-NET Surveillance Team. Hospitalization of adolescents aged 12–17 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19—COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1, 2020–April 24, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:851–7. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7023e1external icon PMID:34111061external icon
  3. Wallace M, Woodworth KR, Gargano JW, et al. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ interim recommendation for use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in adolescents aged 12–15 years—United States, May 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:749–52. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7020e1external icon PMID:34014913external icon
  4. Nanduri S, Pilishvili T, Derado G, et al. Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among nursing home residents before and during widespread circulation of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant—National Healthcare Safety Network, March 1–August 1, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1163–6. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7034e3external icon PMID:34437519external icon
  5. Buonsenso D, Munblit D, De Rose C, et al. Preliminary evidence on long COVID in children. Acta Paediatr 2021;110:2208–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15870external icon PMID:33835507external icon
  6. Feldstein LR, Rose EB, Horwitz SM, et al.; Overcoming COVID-19 Investigators; CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in U.S. children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 2020;383:334–46. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021680external icon PMID:32598831external icon
  7. Murthy BP, Zell E, Saelee R, et al. COVID-19 vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 12–17 years—United States, December 14, 2020–July 31, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1206–13.
  8. Siegel DA, Reses HE, Cool AJ, et al. Trends in COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits, and hospital admissions among children and adolescents aged 0–17 years—United States, August 2020–August 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021. Epub September 3, 2021.

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FIGURE 1. COVID-19–associated cumulative hospitalizations per 100,000 children and adolescents,* by age group — COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1, 2020–August 14, 2021

Hospitalizations Associated with COVID-19 Among Children... (4)

* Rates are subject to change as additional data are reported.

(Video) COVID hospitalizations among U.S. children rising as Omicron spreads

Select counties in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, and Utah.

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FIGURE 2. COVID-19–associated weekly hospitalizations per 100,000 children and adolescents,* by age group — COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1, 2020–August 14, 2021 (3-week smoothed running averages)§

Hospitalizations Associated with COVID-19 Among Children... (6)

* Rates are subject to change as additional data are reported.

Select counties in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, and Utah.

§ Smoothed running averages are used for visualization purposes only.

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TABLE. Clinical interventions and outcomes among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years during COVID-19–associated hospitalizations — COVID‑NET, 14 states,* March 1, 2020–June 19, 2021 and June 20–July 31, 2021
Interventions and outcomesChildren and adolescents hospitalized, No. (%)p-value§
March 1, 2020–June 19, 2021 (N = 3,116)June 20–July 31, 2021 (N = 164)
Hospital length of stay, median (interquartile range)3 (2–5)2 (1–4)0.01
Outcome
Died during hospitalization21 (0.7)3 (1.8)0.12
ICU admission827 (26.5)38 (23.2)0.34
Vasopressor support233 (7.5)13 (7.9)0.83
Highest level of respiratory support
High flow nasal cannula162 (5.2)13 (7.9)0.13
BiPAP/CPAP131 (4.2)6 (3.7)0.73
Invasive mechanical ventilation190 (6.1)16 (9.8)0.06

Abbreviations: BiPAP = bilevel positive airway pressure; CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure; ICU = intensive care unit.
* Select counties in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, and Utah.
Includes those with complete clinical data on hospital length of stay, ICU admission, highest level of respiratory support (invasive mechanical ventilation, BiPAP/CPAP, or high flow nasal cannula), vasopressor support, and disposition discharge (i.e., discharged alive or died in-hospital).
§ Medians were compared using a Wilcoxon rank sum test. Proportions were compared using chi square tests. The proportions who died during hospitalization were compared using Fisher’s exact test.
Highest level of respiratory support for each patient that needed respiratory support.

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Suggested citation for this article: Delahoy MJ, Ujamaa D, Whitaker M, et al. Hospitalizations Associated with COVID-19 Among Children and Adolescents — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1, 2020–August 14, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1255–1260. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7036e2external icon.

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(Video) Sharp rise in child COVID hospitalizations

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FAQs

How serious is COVID-19 usually for most children? ›

For most children and young people, these illnesses will not be serious, and they will soon recover following rest and plenty of fluids.

Who are at higher risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19? ›

Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

Has Canada dropped all COVID-19 restrictions? ›

Canada announced on Monday that it would remove all remaining coronavirus entry restrictions, including testing and quarantine requirements, effective Oct. 1, ending some of the worlds longest and most stringent rules.

What are the common side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine? ›

Some people have reported a sudden feeling of cold with shivering/shaking accompanied by a rise in temperature, often with sweating, headache (including migraine-like headaches), nausea, muscle aches and feeling unwell, starting within a day of having the vaccine.

Can excess weight increase risk of serious illness from COVID-19? ›

Excess fat can affect the respiratory system and is likely to affect inflammatory and immune function. This can impact people’s response to infection and increase vulnerability to severe symptoms of COVID-19. Obese people may be less likely to access healthcare and support, and it is also thought that COVID-19 affects other diseases associated with obesity.

Are smokers at risk to the coronavirus disease? ›

A small but highly impactful survey from China finds that smokers with COVID-19 are 14 times more likely to develop severe disease. In addition, the repetitive hand to mouth movement provides an easy route of entry for the virus, putting smokers at greater risk of contracting COVID-19.

Does obesity increase the risk of getting the COVID-19? ›

The current evidence does not suggest that having excess weight increases people’s chances of contracting COVID-19. However, the data does show that obese people are significantly more likely to become seriously ill and be admitted to intensive care with COVID-19 compared to those with a healthy BMI.

How long after COVID-19 can you get booster? ›

You will still need the booster but you should wait at least 4 weeks from your COVID-19 infection.

Can I develop immunity to COVID-19 after testing positive for PCR? ›

If you have previously tested positive for COVID-19, you will probably have developed some immunity to the disease. However, it cannot be guaranteed that everyone will develop immunity, or how long it will last. It is possible for PCR tests to remain positive for some time after COVID-19 infection.

Is AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine recommended for children? ›

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is not recommended for children aged below 18 years. No data are currently available on the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in children and adolescents younger than 18 years of age.

Is Pfizer COVID-19 booster safe? ›

Yes, booster shots are proven to be safe. Pfizer released a study of 10,000 participants in which half of them received a booster dose and half a placebo. In terms of safety, they found no new adverse events, meaning it was consistent with what has been seen in previous studies.

Is there a COVID-19 vaccine for the 17 year old in the UK? ›

At this time, the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine is the only vaccine authorised for persons aged 12 to 17 years in the UK. The Conditional Marketing Authorisation for Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 came into effect on 9 July 2021, with approval previously being provided under Regulation 174.

How many doses of the COVID-19 vaccine do 16 year olds need? ›

The NHS is offering COVID-19 vaccine to some children and young people. This includes those aged 12 to 17 years who need 2 doses of the vaccine 12 weeks apart or 8 weeks apart if at increased risk. All young people aged 16 and 17 years and at risk children aged 12 to 15 will be offered a booster dose 12 weeks after the second dose.

Could COVID-19 vaccine affect menstrual cycle? ›

The findings of this study suggest that COVID-19 vaccination can lengthen the menstrual cycle and that this effect may be mediated by ovarian hormones. However, importantly, it found that the menstrual cycle returns to its pre-vaccination length in unvaccinated cycles.

Does the NHS COVID-19 app identify me? ›

The app does not identify you or your location to other app users.

What is the Ronapreve? ›

Ronapreve is the first neutralising antibody medicine specifically designed to treat COVID-19 to be authorised by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for use in the UK.

Is COVID-19 still a pandemic? ›

With over 1 million deaths this year alone, the pandemic remains an emergency globally and within most countries. "The COVID-19 summer wave, driven by Omicron BA.4 and BA.5, showed that the pandemic is not yet over as the virus continues to circulate in Europe and beyond," a European Commission spokesperson said.

Can I go abroad if I don't have the COVID-19 vaccine? ›

If you have not been fully vaccinated, you should continue to follow the entry requirements of the country you are travelling to, such as proof of a negative COVID-19 test on arrival. You should carefully research the requirements of your destination country before travelling.

How serious is COVID-19 usually for most children? ›

For most children and young people, these illnesses will not be serious, and they will soon recover following rest and plenty of fluids.

In general, how long do COVID-19 vaccine side effects usually last? ›

Side effects generally go away in a few days. Even if you dont experience any side effects, your body is building protection against the virus that causes COVID-19. Adverse events (serious health problems) are rare but can cause long-term health problems.

What should I do if I have COVID-19 vaccine side effects? ›

Most side effects are mild or moderate and go away within a few days of appearing. If side effects such as pain and/or fever are troublesome, they can be treated by medicines for pain and fever such as paracetamol.

Can you take ibuprofen if you have the coronavirus disease? ›

Patients can take paracetamol or ibuprofen when self-medicating for symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever and headache, and should follow NHS advice if they have any questions or if symptoms get worse.

Who are at higher risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19? ›

Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

How long should I exercise for during quarantine? ›

Physical activity and relaxation techniques can be valuable tools to help you remain calm and continue to protect your health during this time. WHO recommends 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, or a combination of both.

Are smokers at higher risk of developing severe respiratory disease from COVID-19? ›

The evidence clearly shows COVID-19 virus attacks the respiratory system, which explains why smokers are at greater risk. A small but highly impactful survey from China finds that smokers with COVID-19 are 14 times more likely to develop severe disease.

Can you take ibuprofen if you have the coronavirus disease? ›

Patients can take paracetamol or ibuprofen when self-medicating for symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever and headache, and should follow NHS advice if they have any questions or if symptoms get worse.

Are respiratory symptoms of a COVID-19 or any other infection common in children during the winter months? ›

Respiratory infections are common in children and young people, particularly during the winter months. Symptoms can be caused by several respiratory infections including the common cold, COVID-19 and RSV.

Can you get COVID-19 infection and flu at the same time? ›

Study results from early in the pandemic show individuals who catch both flu and COVID-19 at the same time, known as co-infection, are around twice as likely to suffer death compared to those who only have COVID-19.

Do smokers suffer from worse COVID-19 symptoms? ›

Early research indicates that, compared to non-smokers, having a history of smoking may substantially increase the chance of adverse health outcomes for COVID-19 patients, including being admitted to intensive care, requiring mechanical ventilation and suffering severe health consequences.

What is the Ronapreve? ›

Ronapreve is the first neutralising antibody medicine specifically designed to treat COVID-19 to be authorised by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for use in the UK.

What does it mean that coronaviruses are zoonotic? ›

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.

What are some common "Long COVID" symptoms in the UK? ›

The most common long COVID symptoms were fatigue (62% of those with self-reported long COVID), shortness of breath (37%), difficulty concentrating (33%) and muscle ache (31%).

Are COVID-19 tests 100% reliable? ›

No test is 100% reliable, even those who meet regulatory standards for performance and safety. The results are also only relevant to that sample at that point in time.

How long does the virus that causes COVID-19 last on surfaces? ›

Recent research evaluated the survival of the COVID-19 virus on different surfaces and reported that the virus can remain viable for up to 72 hours on plastic and stainless steel, up to four hours on copper, and up to 24 hours on cardboard.

How should you maintain social distancing to prevent the spread of COVID-19 at home with possible infection? ›

Spend as little time as possible in shared spaces such as kitchens, bathrooms and sitting areas. Avoid using shared spaces such as kitchens and other living areas while others are present and take your meals back to your room to eat. Observe strict social distancing.

What is the best household disinfectant for surfaces during COVID-19? ›

Regular household cleaning and disinfection products will effectively eliminate the virus from household surfaces. For cleaning and disinfecting households with suspected or confirmed COVID19, surface virucidal disinfectants, such as 0.05% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and products based on ethanol (at least 70%), should be used.

Videos

1. COVID-19 hospitalization at an all time high amongst children as parents send their kids back to...
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2. Georgia faces rising COVID-19 hospitalizations among children
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3. Doctor explains rise in COVID-19 cases among children
(Good Morning America)
4. COVID-19 hospitalizations rising among Oklahoma children
(KFOR Oklahoma's News 4)
5. Children's COVID-19 hospitalizations are on the rise
(CBS News)
6. Rise of COVID-19 child hospitalizations raises concerns
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