Memphis Music Scene | Tennessee Encyclopedia (2022)

  • Written by Carroll Van West

The musical legacy of the Bluff City is exciting, diverse, and extremely significant in the history of American culture. Today Memphis’s best known landmarks are two places–Beale Street and Graceland–intimately associated with the city’s place in American music history, especially that of the blues, rockabilly, and rock-n-roll. But key institutions in Tennessee’s classical music history are based in Memphis as well, and several nationally recognized artists in jazz, gospel, and rhythm-n-blues have strong associations with the Memphis music scene.

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Blues, rock-n-roll, soul, and jazz music may still be heard nightly at the different clubs and music venues on Beale Street. The street was the center of African American commerce and culture for blacks from the city, eastern Arkansas, West Tennessee, and northern Mississippi, a virtual northern gateway to the rich culture of the Mississippi Delta. “A meeting place for urban and rural styles,” emphasized folklorist George McDaniel, “Beale served as a school where young talent was nurtured and it produced musicians who shaped the course of American music.” (1) W. C. Handy, B. B. King, Jimmy Lunceford, Bobby “Blue” Bland, Furry Lewis, Booker T. W. White, Piano Red Williams, Lillie May Glover, Sleepy John Estes, McKinley Morganfield (Muddy Waters), Sam Chatmon, and Big Joe Williams were among the most important artists shaping the distinctive Memphis blues sound of the mid-twentieth century, as the city joined Chicago and New York as the creative centers of blues music. Radio announcer and Memphis history teacher Nat D. Williams observed in the Memphis World of November 30, 1945: “Come what may, there will always be a Beale Street, because Beale Street is a spirit . . . a symbol . . . a way of life . . . Beale Street is a hope.”

This Memphis sound and musical tradition later shaped the early rockabilly style associated with Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins, and Johnny Cash. All five artists made their early significant recordings under the guidance of producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records studio, located a few blocks away from the heart of the African American nightclub district. Presley, Lewis, Perkins, and Cash also show how rural southern traditions mixed with the urban beat of Memphis. Presley, although living then in Memphis, was originally from northern Mississippi. Perkins came from rural West Tennessee while Lewis hailed from Louisiana and Cash from Arkansas. Presley always remained identified as a rock-n-roll star, although he took great pride in his Grammy Award-winning gospel music recordings. Lewis, Perkins, and Cash later became identified as country music performers, especially the latter two as they recorded and performed together regularly in the late 1960s and 1970s. The Johnny Cash Show, recorded at Nashville’s Ryman Auditorium in the early 1970s, was a popular network television program, contributing significantly to the rise in popularity of country music across the nation. Interestingly, during this period, Orbison and Cash were neighbors in Hendersonville, a community east of Nashville. As the 1990s end, Cash is the only one of the five Sun artists to record regularly, with his recent stark releases gaining critical praise. Cordell Jackson, the “Guitar Granny,” continues to record and perform the classic rockabilly sound that once defined early rock-n-roll in Memphis.

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Memphis was at the forefront of the “arena rock” movement in Tennessee. Its Mid-South Coliseum was the only place in Tennessee that featured concerts by the Beatles, the Stax Revue, and Elvis. In fact, the appearance of the Beatles in 1966 led to KKK demonstrations outside the arena, loud complaints from city officials, and the arrest of two teenagers for throwing cherry bombs on stage. Elvis recorded a live album at the coliseum in 1974. The Mid-South Coliseum, for its musical heritage, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000.

The reputation of Beale Street attracted musicians to come to Memphis. Another attraction was the city’s diverse radio stations. During the late 1940s and 1950s, “radio was the key to the magic taking place in Memphis. It instilled pride; it energized emotions.” (2) Just south and across the Mississippi was KFFA in Helena, Arkansas, where Sonny Boy Williamson II hosted a Saturday night blues showcase called King Biscuit Time. In Memphis WNBR-Radio broadcast a weekly Amateur Night show from the Palace Theater on Beale Street, where widely different musicians performed blues, pop songs, jazz, and rhythm-n-blues numbers. Memphis’s WDIA-Radio in 1948 hired Nat D. Williams, a teacher, announcer, and Beale Street advocate/performer, as the region’s first black disk jockey on a white radio station and introduced an all-black music format, replacing its earlier classical music format. Williams’s broadcasts of rhythm-n-blues music became popular and later influenced Elvis Presley and many other white performers. WDIA played an influential role in the career of B. B. King and also introduced to the listening white audience the sounds of black gospel music. WDIA is the oldest black-oriented radio station in the nation and has shaped not only the region’s musical traditions but also its sense of black history, culture, and civil rights. WHBQ-Radio during the early 1950s hosted the influential Red Hot and Blue show by disk jockey Dewey Phillips. Phillips was the first to play Elvis on local radio, and the station championed the rockabilly sound coming from Sun Records.

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Rhythm-n-blues or soul music in Memphis is closely associated with the rise of Stax Records and its Memphis recording studios. Estelle Stewart Axton and her brother Jim Stewart established Satellite Productions in an abandoned grocery store at Brunswick in rural Shelby County. In 1960 they moved to an old movie theater at 924 East McLemore Avenue in Memphis where they joined forces with producer Lincoln “Chips” Moman. Among the initial artists recording with Satellite Productions were Rufus and Carla Thomas, Booker T. Jones, and Steve Cropper. In late 1961 Satellite became Stax Records and Booker T. and the MGs became the label’s first star act. Otis Redding soon joined the company’s roster. With artists such as Redding, Percy Sledge, and the dynamic duo of Sam and Dave, Stax Records became a major force in American popular music, achieving its best work from 1965 to 1970. Local Memphis musician and songwriter Isaac Hayes penned many of the label’s biggest hits and then achieved stardom himself with the soundtrack to Shaft in 1971.

Hi Records, led by producer Willie Mitchell, was a competing label for the best in Memphis’s soul music. Early Hi artists included Don Bryant, Ann Peebles, and especially Tina Turner, who worked with Mitchell on various album productions from 1967 to 1977. Mitchell’s primary artist, however, was Al Green, who had a string of soul music hits in the early 1970s.

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At the same time of this explosion of popular music, classical music institutions developed in Memphis, and sometimes artists from these institutions participated in the more popular side of the Memphis Music Scene. Beginning in the mid-1930s, Noel Gilbert organized small orchestras to play at local hotels as well as conducting both the WREC- and WMC-Radio staff orchestras. In the early 1950s he brought classical music to the new medium of television with a nightly program titled Evening Serenade on WMC-TV. From 1947 through the 1970s Gilbert also conducted a summer series of classical music at the band shell in Overton Park. He even found time in the early 1960s to serve as a studio musician and coordinator at recording sessions for Sun, Hi, and Stax records. His work accompanied recordings from artists as diverse as Presley, Green, Hayes, and Dionne Warwick. In 1952 Vincent DeFrank formed the Memphis Sinfonietta, a precursor to the Memphis Symphony Orchestra he founded in 1960. Today the city maintains several active classical music institutions, and Opera Memphis is the state’s largest opera company.

Gospel music, too, was important in the rise of the Memphis music scene. Reverend Herbert Brewster of the city’s East Trigg Baptist Church began writing gospel songs in the 1930s, including the favorites “Move on up a Little Higher,” recorded by Mahalia Jackson, and “Surely, God is Able,” recorded by the Ward Singers. Lucie Campbell graduated from high school in Memphis in 1899 and stayed in the city to shape its musical traditions for the next six decades. A prolific composer of more than one hundred gospel songs, her first song was published in 1919. Two years later, several of her compositions were included in the National Baptist Convention’s Gospel Pearls (1921), one of the first gospel songbooks ever published. Campbell later introduced Marian Anderson to the National Baptist Convention and served as Anderson’s accompanist. Memphis was also home to several significant traditional gospel harmony quartets such as The Spirit of Memphis, the I. C. Glee Club Quartet, and the Sunset Travelers.

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Gospel, jazz, blues, soul, and rockabilly have combined to create the distinctive Memphis music tradition, a legacy still savored by music lovers across the nation. The Memphis Rock ‘n’ Soul Museum and the Center for Southern Folklore celebrate that rich legacy today with exhibits and programs.

FAQs

What music is Memphis famous for? ›

Gospel, jazz, blues, soul, and rockabilly have combined to create the distinctive Memphis music tradition, a legacy still savored by music lovers across the nation. The Memphis Rock 'n' Soul Museum and the Center for Southern Folklore celebrate that rich legacy today with exhibits and programs.

What is the most popular music Street in Memphis TN? ›

Beale Street in Memphis, Tennessee, is one of the most iconic streets in America. It is three blocks of nightclubs, restaurants and shops in the heart of downtown Memphis, and a melting pot of delta blues, jazz, rock 'n' roll, R&B and gospel.

What role did Memphis play in the emergence of blues music? ›

Handy called it Memphis Blues and introduced in the auditorium and Robert Church's nightclubs. With Church's vision and money, plus Handy's artistry and management of musicians, the best Blues artists soon trekked to Beale Street. Thus, Memphis flourished as the first widely identified “Home of the Blues” and W.C.

Is Memphis a Music City? ›

Nashville & Memphis Are “Music Cities”

Both Nashville and Memphis have “music city” reputations and claim some of the same artists like Elvis, Johnny Cash, and Carl Perkins. However, Nashville is largely associated with Country and Bluegrass music. Over Memphis-way, it's Rhythm and Blues and Jazz.

Why is Memphis so special? ›

Known worldwide as the "Home of the Blues & Birthplace of Rock 'n' Roll - not to mention gospel, jazz, R&B, rap and soul. Close to 20 percent of the earliest inductees (24 of the 97) in the Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Fame have come from within a 100-mile radius of Memphis.

Why is Memphis so popular? ›

Memphis is known for its rich music heritage and its impact on Blues, Rock-n-Roll, and jazz. It's also a major producer of cotton and lumber. Plus, it's home to the NBA team the Memphis Grizzlies, and many other sports teams. Memphis-style barbeque is also one of four major barbecuing styles in the US.

Why is Beale Street so famous? ›

The History of Beale Street

Beale Street was built on memories – good and bad. Beale Street's heyday was in the roaring 20′s, when it took on a carnival atmosphere. The booming nightclubs, theaters, restaurants, stores, pawnshops and hot music thrived alongside gambling, drinking, prostitution, murder and voodoo.

Where did Elvis go on Beale Street? ›

Lansky BROTHERS

As a teenager, Elvis shopped at the original location at 126 Beale St., reopened today for a legendary shopping experience.

What should I wear in Memphis? ›

Because the temperature between the outdoors and your air-conditioned meeting space can vary up to 30 degrees, you'll want to stay cool, calm and collected by layering your clothing. Light weight materials like silk, linen and cotton in the summer are a must.

Why do you think Memphis is so important to the history of American music? ›

Memphis is both the place from which W.C. Handy spread the Delta Blues at the turn of the century and where, 50 years later, Sun Studio churned out Elvis Presley's world-altering hits. But that is truly just the tip of Memphis' multilayered musical history.

Is Memphis known for blues or jazz? ›

Memphis is known for blues and early rock-n-roll traditions, and Nashville is famous for country music, but both also move to the strains of jazz. In no part of Tennessee, however, did jazz ever enjoy commercial or popular success, or make a lasting cultural impression.

Why is Memphis called the Home of the Blues? ›

The style was popular in vaudeville and medicine shows and was associated with Beale Street, the main entertainment area in Memphis, W. C. Handy, the "Father of the Blues", published the song "The Memphis Blues". In lyrics, the phrase has been used to describe a depressed mood.

Is Memphis or Nashville nicer? ›

If you're an Elvis fan, BBQ lover or into blues music, Memphis is the obvious choice. If you're into country music, Nashville is the obvious choice. If you're not crazy about any of these things, I'd lean towards Memphis. Visit Mud Island & Graceland during the day.

Which state has the best music scene? ›

It comes as no surprise that Tennessee tops the charts when it comes to music lovers. Nashville is, after all, known as Music City USA. Home to America's longest-running radio show, the famous RCA Studio B, the Ryman Auditorium, and the Country Music Hall of Fame, Nashville was built on the foundation of music.

What city has the biggest music scene? ›

The US's hub for country and western music, there's a reason Nashville earned the nicknamed 'Music City USA. ' Among the city's most prominent musical claims to fame is the Grand Ole Opry, a country music and variety radio show that is still recorded live at the historic Ryman Auditorium.

What are people from Memphis called? ›

Memphian Definition & Meaning | Dictionary.com.

Is Memphis like Nashville? ›

Whereas Nashville is known for country music, in Memphis it's all about Blues, Soul and Rock & Roll. The city's musical identity is celebrated during the annual summertime Beale Street Festival which takes place in Memphis every May.

Is Memphis a cool place to live? ›

If music, low cost of living, and great weather rank high on your list, then yes, Memphis is a good place to live. Memphis is considered The Cradle of American Music. The U. S. News & World Report ranks it as the second-best place to visit in Tennessee and among the best weekend getaways in the south.

What is it like to live in Memphis? ›

Have you ever wanted to live in a city where music and culture fill the streets? Then Memphis might be the perfect place for you! Not only is the second largest city in Tennessee the birthplace of rock and roll, but it also has affordable housing, great schools, some of the best barbecue, and much more.

Is Memphis worth visiting? ›

Memphis excels, and I mean really excels, in four distinct areas, each worth a visit: attractions, culture/museums, entertainment, and dining. Elvis Presley's Graceland is the city's most famous attraction.

Is Memphis Good for tourists? ›

Reasons to Visit Memphis

Probably the most famous reason to visit is to see Graceland. You can see where Elvis lived, and the home now features a museum and other attractions. You can also visit other music venues to watch live performances. Memphis has a fantastic music scene for residents and tourists.

What does 10 feet off Beale mean? ›

ten feet off of Beale ("ten feet off" implies "floating above" and is idiomatic for "very happy") I was walking on Beale street feeling very excited and happy to be there. thank you very much.it took me years to know about this. Community platform by XenForo® © 2010-2022 XenForo Ltd.

Is Beale Street safe at night? ›

Memphis is generally a safe city for tourists. You'll notice a lot of police presence downtown (especially around Beale Street) in both the day and night, but travelers should still exercise caution in tourist areas, which are known to have a high concentration of panhandlers.

Do you have to pay to walk down Beale Street? ›

The security fee is used to help reduce crowd sizes and create the best possible visitor experience on Beale. The charge begins at 9:00 pm each night and is $5 per person. Payment of the security fee can be made with cash or debit/credit cards.

What was Elvis favorite restaurant in Memphis? ›

A few of his favorite restaurants still exist in Memphis. Coletta's was a favorite hangout of Elvis and his buddies – known as the Memphis Mafia, who held court at a large table in the center room, now known as the Elvis Room.

How far is Graceland from Beale Street? ›

The distance between Graceland and Beale Street is 7 miles. The road distance is 8 miles. How do I travel from Graceland to Beale Street without a car? The best way to get from Graceland to Beale Street without a car is to line 30 bus and line 39 bus which takes 1h 19m and costs $2.

What restaurants did Elvis go to in Memphis? ›

Coletta's Italian Restaurant

Why You Need To Go: Coletta's was one of the singer's favorite hangout spots. So much so, they even have a whole room dedicated to him called the "Elvis Room". His favorite order was the BBQ pizza.

Is Beale Street worth visiting? ›

You really can't go to Memphis without making a visit to Beale Street. It is a street with a fascinating past and is often mentioned as one of the most iconic streets in America. So although it is known for music and partying into the wee hours of the night it is truly much more than that.

What do people wear in Memphis in February? ›

February. February is still cool in Memphis with the average high being 55 degrees. Bring those warm clothes, and make sure you have waterproof shoes.

What should I wear in downtown Nashville? ›

Nashville's style is relaxed but trendy, so you'd do well with breezy sundresses or quality denim paired with a cute and trendy top. Depending on how the weather looks, you'll even find some Nashville natives rocking dark denim, leather boots, and jackets.

What tragic event happened in Memphis 1968? ›

Two Sanitation Workers' Deaths Spark Strike

Police close in on group of striking garbage workers in downtown Memphis on February 23, 1968 when a melee broke out during a peaceful demonstration by some 1500 strikers.

Where is the birthplace of R&B? ›

Vail Jazz: New Orleans was the birthplace of funk and R&B in addition to jazz. Henry Roeland “Roy” Byrd, known as “Professor Longhair” or “Fess” for short, invented the distinctive beat found in many early R&B songs. He influenced artists like Fats Domino, Dr.

Who is the most influential rock and roll music artist whose home is in Memphis? ›

Graceland. Elvis would soon outgrow Sun, but lived in Memphis for much of the rest of his life, and his Graceland mansion is one of the most-visited tourist sites in the United States.

Where is the jazz capital of the world? ›

New Orleans, Louisiana

New Orleans is known as the birthplace of jazz and is still a top music city today. From when it was cultivated in the early 20th century all the way to today, jazz music is the heart and soul of this Southern city.

What is the jazz capital of America? ›

New Orleans: Birthplace of jazz.

What is the blues capital of the world? ›

Not only the blues capital of the world, Memphis is also known as - Picture of Memphis, Tennessee - Tripadvisor.

Where was the birthplace of rock and roll? ›

Sun Studio Memphis-- birthplace of Rock & Roll

Known fondly as the birthplace of Rock & Roll, Sun Studio opened its doors as Memphis Recording Service in 1950. It was Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats' “Rocket 88” Sun Records recording in 1951 that goes down in history as the first Rock & Roll single.

Did Elvis go Beale Street? ›

4 – Elvis Presley

Born in Tupelo, Elvis Aaron Presley moved with his parents to Memphis in 1948. He explored all kinds of music, listening and learning from acts playing the Ellis Auditorium to Beale Street.

Is Memphis safer than Nashville? ›

1 most dangerous city; Nashville in top-50. MEMPHIS, Tenn.

What is the percentage of blacks in Memphis TN? ›

Memphis Demographics

Black or African American: 64.41% White: 27.87% Other race: 3.52%

Is it cheaper to live in Memphis or Nashville? ›

The cost of living in Nashville, TN is 13.4% higher than in Memphis, TN.

Which city is known as City of Music? ›

The city of Varanasi has been chosen as the City of Music. The article features all you should know about the city and the list of cities that have been nicknamed. Under the UNESCO's Creative Cities Network, the city of Varanasi was chosen as the 'City of Music' in July this year.

What U.S. city is known for music? ›

Nicknamed "Music City," Nashville is the epicenter of country and western music in the United States. The most famous of Nashville's musical legacies is the Grand Ole Opry, a country music and variety radio show that is still recorded live.

What city is known for live music? ›

Austin, Texas, is known as the “Live Music Capital of the World”. From the moment you arrive you'll see why this city has earned that nickname as even the airport is regularly home to several live music gigs in its shops and restaurants.

Is Memphis a music capital? ›

Nashville & Memphis Are “Music Cities”

Both Nashville and Memphis have “music city” reputations and claim some of the same artists like Elvis, Johnny Cash, and Carl Perkins. However, Nashville is largely associated with Country and Bluegrass music. Over Memphis-way, it's Rhythm and Blues and Jazz.

Where is the music capital of USA? ›

Nashville is the home of country and western music in the US and is nicknamed "Music City USA". The most famous music legacy in Nashville is the Grand Ole Opry, a country music and variety show that is still recorded live and is the famed show that discovered Dolly Parton.

Where is the best music scene in the world? ›

The world's best live music scenes
  • New York City, USA. The USA really is the perfect destination for lovers of live music, and New York makes a pretty decent starting point. ...
  • Austin, USA. ...
  • Melbourne, Australia. ...
  • Dublin, Ireland. ...
  • Berlin, Germany. ...
  • New Orleans, USA. ...
  • Tokyo, Japan. ...
  • Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Is Memphis the birthplace of rock and roll? ›

Sun Studio Memphis-- birthplace of Rock & Roll

Known fondly as the birthplace of Rock & Roll, Sun Studio opened its doors as Memphis Recording Service in 1950. It was Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats' “Rocket 88” Sun Records recording in 1951 that goes down in history as the first Rock & Roll single.

What type of music is Nashville known for? ›

Nashville is nicknamed Music City for good reason. It's regarded as the birthplace of country music, but it's truly a home for all genres, including Bluegrass, Rock, Blues, Indie Rock, and more.

Does Memphis have live music? ›

Whatever the reason, when it comes to music, there's simply no place like Memphis. Experience it in live music venues from Beale Street to lush parks to the 'burbs, at signature Memphis music festivals and events, and while touring legendary recording studios and music attractions.

What is the blues capital of the world? ›

Not only the blues capital of the world, Memphis is also known as - Picture of Memphis, Tennessee - Tripadvisor.

Why do you think Memphis is so important to the history of American music? ›

Memphis is both the place from which W.C. Handy spread the Delta Blues at the turn of the century and where, 50 years later, Sun Studio churned out Elvis Presley's world-altering hits. But that is truly just the tip of Memphis' multilayered musical history.

What tragic event happened in Memphis 1968? ›

Two Sanitation Workers' Deaths Spark Strike

Police close in on group of striking garbage workers in downtown Memphis on February 23, 1968 when a melee broke out during a peaceful demonstration by some 1500 strikers.

What famous person was born in Memphis? ›

Memphis-born Lisa Marie Presley is a singer-songwriter and actress. She's best known as the daughter of Elvis Presley. George Hamilton was born in Memphis, Tennessee and is a talented film and television actor.

What is the music capital of America? ›

Nashville is the home of country and western music in the US and is nicknamed "Music City USA". The most famous music legacy in Nashville is the Grand Ole Opry, a country music and variety show that is still recorded live and is the famed show that discovered Dolly Parton.

What food is Nashville famous for? ›

Nashville is a culinary treasure, known for meat-and-three diners, fiery fried chicken and fluffy biscuits as well as a strong farm-to-table community. Eat like a local with this guide to some of the best places to eat and drink in Music City.

What are Nashville people called? ›

Nashvillian

Where can I hear music in Memphis? ›

The 15 Best Places with Live Music in Memphis
  • B.B. King's Blues Club. 143 Beale St, Memphis, TN. ...
  • Levitt Shell. 1923 Poplar Ave (at Overton Park), Memphis, TN. ...
  • Minglewood Hall. 1555 Madison Ave (at S Willett St), Memphis, TN. ...
  • Overton Park Shell. Memphis, TN. ...
  • FedExForum. ...
  • Handy Park. ...
  • The Bluff. ...
  • Rum Boogie Café
17 Sept 2022

What time does the music start on Beale Street? ›

Starting Friday: 4:00 p.m. Starting Saturday: 12:00 p.m. Starting Sunday: 12:00 p.m.

Where is the music in Memphis? ›

If you're visiting Memphis, Beale Street is probably on your radar – as it should be! This historic street is the home of the blues and features live music every single night of the week in multiple venues, as it has for decades.

What state has the best blues music? ›

New Orleans, Louisiana

Ever since, New Orleans has been a big player in the music world. New Orleans blues is typically more upbeat than the original style, with extra swagger born from the influence of spirituals, Dixieland bands and Caribbean music.

What city is the home of rock? ›

MEMPHIS, Tenn. — This port city on the Mississippi River calls itself the birthplace of rock 'n' roll. Its credentials? The Memphis Recording Service, forerunner of Sun Studio, in 1951 recorded “Rocket 88” by Jackie Brenston & His Delta Cats, which some people say was the first rock 'n' roll record.

Which came first jazz or blues? ›

Blues is derived from Bluegrass, Jazz, R&B, and Rock. Jazz comes from Calypso, Funk, Soul, and Swing. It's important to know that Blues was around before Jazz; thus, Blues can be considered an element of Jazz music. Jazz is from New Orleans, while Blues is from Mississippi.

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