The Golden Retriever was created by Lord Tweedmouth in Britain in the 1800s. Tweedmouth wanted an extremely athletic dog that would live to retrieve in the fields of Scotland, especially waterfowl. He wanted a dog that was loyal and kind, with much spirit and enthusiasm. Many breeds are believed to be used to produce the Golden Retriever, such as the Tweed Water Spaniel (now extinct), Newfoundland, Irish Setter, wavy-coated retriever, Bloodhound, and a wide variety of water spaniels. His breeding records from 1835 to 1890 were made public in 1952. The first official litter of four Goldens was born in 1868 and were named Crocus, Primrose, Cowslip, and Ada.
Golden Retriever & horses has always had an unique bond.
Today’s Field Golden Retriever is very similar in looks and character to Lord Tweedmouth’s original dogs, they are usually of the Dark Golden color scheme, they are generally smaller-framed dogs, with more energy, drive, and of course, hunting/retrieving instinct than today’s show line Golden Retrievers.
They, without a doubt are the smartest dog breed.
The Hon. Mary Maroribanks, daughter of Lord Tweedmouth, with "Cowslip" or "Primrose"
Field Golden Retrievers
"Show" Golden Retriever Breed Evolution
1920 Vs today's Field Golden Retriever
The above illustration is a great example of the dramatic change in appearance over the last 100 years from the original field dogs to today's show cream line Golden Retrievers, as you can see the field line golden retrievers have kept the same appearance in a very athletics dog with a dark, rich gold coat.
The main difference in the field lines from the the original breed from Lord Tweedmouth 150 years ago is that breeders continued focus for breeding highly intelligent and trainable dogs making them an amazing perfect dog in every way.
Echobrook Dexster - OFTW
My Nessy @ 14 months
The photo's an example of the original working line and photo of Nessy.
By The Earl of Ilchester
(This article was printed in Country Life Magazine (England), July 25, 1952.)
For some years I have been intending to put on paper my recollections of the earliest history of the yellow, wavy-coated retrievers, which have, in recent years, become so numerous and so popular in this country. Up to the end of the last century they were a rarity, and I am probably the only person alive who can remember even the second generation of the yellow breed which belonged to Sir Dudley Courts Marjoribanks, of Guisachan, Inverness-shire. Sir Dudley, who was brother to my grandmother, the Hon. Mrs. John Fox-Strangeways, was born in 1820, was created Baron Tweedmouth in 1881, and died in 1894.
The name yellow retriever was the original name of the breed, but this has been largely superseded in later years by that of golden retriever, one coined by the late Lord Harcourt, after he had bought one or more puppies from a keeper, and after he had been given a number of those dogs which remained in the Guisachan kennels by Lord Tweedmouth, when he sold the property in 1905 or 1906. Lord Harcourt immediately began to exhibit his dogs on the show-bench, and was no doubt in search of a new title in order to form a new class, for neither Tweedmouth nor Ilchester breeds had ever been shown. However, it is fair to add that the Guisachan dogs had generally become darker in colour in the intervening years.
Even at the beginning of this century, there was confusion about the origin of the breed. Black, wavy-coated retrievers, and in certain circles in the south of Scotland, black Labradors, were in great vogue. Indeed, except among member of the Tweedmouth and Ilchester families and their intimate friends, yellow retrievers were little known. Consequently their subsequent spread to all parts of the country was not easily foreseen.
It is late in the day, therefore, to try to re-assemble facts and search out the truth. But unless I set about it now, it may never be done and the true story will be lost forever.
Fortunately, one unimpeachable source of information is still available. Sir Dudley Marjoribanks kept a studbook from 1835 onwards in which he recorded the name and breeding of his setters, his pointers, his greyhounds and his spaniels. Beagles come into the story in 1838 for a year or two; a retriever, evidently black, is mentioned in 1842 and not another till 1852. Irish spaniels are mentioned in 1843; and deerhounds supersede greyhounds for the first time in 1848. In 1854 he bought Guisachan; and thenceforward his kennel records were greatly increased.
Our business, however, is with retrievers. The sources whence they came were carefully set down, but colour was not mentioned. After 1868 the omission scarcely matters, for the names of the dogs give a clue to what we want to know. This book is now in the possession of Lady Pentland, a grand-daughter of Sir Dudley, and a daughter of the late Lord and Lady Aberdeen, and she has most kindly placed at my disposal, with other important and interesting papers connected with the problem. From these I an able to give new facts, which clearly conflict with certain suppositions that have been circulated in recent years, and also to introduce an entirely new line of thought.
One story is that Sir Dudley purchased at Brighton about the year 1868, from a dog trainer in a traveling circus, three yellow dogs. These animals, no doubt sheep dogs, were said to have been brought from the Region of the Caucasus and one of them, specified as Nous, was said to have been taken to Guisachan, and in due course to have become the first of the yellow breed. Everyone, I think, agrees that Nous was yellow, and that he was the first. But the belief that a Russian dog originated the strain is not borne out by dates, for Nous is to be found in the studbook as early as 1865, where he is described as “Lord Chichester’s breed. June, 1864, purchd. At Brighton.” He had no connection at all with any Russian dogs, if indeed they existed, for he had already been at Guisachan for some years.
I must confess that I had never put much faith in “the Russian myth”; but there is one very significant entry in the studbook in 1868 which causes me to waiver. A mysterious dog, “Sancho, April, 1868,” appears at the bottom of the list for that year. No breeding is gotten – very unlike Sir Dudley’s usual entries, which mention and repeat the details year after year. But it does occur to one that this dog might have been one of the Russians (Sancho seems a good circus name!). And might not Sir Dudley, having already a magnificent dog, Nous (i.e., wisdom), in his kennels have decided to try a dog of similar colour from the circus? Sancho, however, was clearly a failure; so much so that Sir Dudley never troubled even to make a note about his origin. He never appears again in the book; and he certainly never had any place at all in the future breeding of yellow retrievers. This suggestion, however, would account for the story, agreed by keepers years later, that a Russian dog did once appear at Guisachan. They talked of the arrival of Nous in 1868; but as he was already there, perhaps Sancho was the dog of which they spoke. So, clearly, Russian dogs can be dismissed from the problem for good and all.
Much of this talk about the Caucasus, however, was revived about 1911 by Colonel the Hon. William le Poer Trench, who owned a number of yellow dogs of Guisachan origin. He claimed that his strain went back to the original Nous breed. And that was quite possible, even probable. But his obsession on the subject of the Russian cross, induced him to journey to the Caucasus. There he was told that the dogs were with the sheep on the high ground at that season of the year. If he would pay the price, one would be found for him. He left his money; but no dog ever appeared!
The studbook gives us plain facts. Nevertheless, a few notes may be desirable to supplement the information given above, and to prove my case, after Sir Dudley Marjoribanks purchase of Guisachan in 1854, he never had more than four retrievers in the kennels until 1866. In 1863, however, Tweed, “Ladykirk breed, 1862,” was given to him by David Robertson, M.P., a relative, who had changed his name in 1834 from Marjoribanks and only reverted to the name when created a Baron in 1873, a week before he died. I shall have more to say about these dogs in due course.
In 1865 Nous appears in the book as having been bought in the previous year. A photograph of him, probably taken in 1872, with a Guisachan keeper, Simon Munro, who died who died the following year, appears in Hutchinson’s Dog Encyclopedia, p. 742, and shows a very definite yellow dog.
Tweed died in 1867, having never apparently been used for the stud and was replaced by Mr. Robertson with Belle, “1863, Ladykirk breed.”
In June, 1868, Nous and Belle produced four yellow puppies, of which Sir Dudley kept two, Cowslip and Primrose. Of the others, he gave Crocus to his son, Edward Marjoribanks, and Ada to my father. The last named was the first of the Ilchester line, which will be dealt with separately later in the article.
Space will not allow long dissertations on the later development of the yellow retriever breed at Guisachan, but it is necessary to mention a new Tweed, given by My Robertson in 1872, for this dog was put to Cowslip in 1873, and produced Topsey. In 1874, Brass, out of my father’s Ada, arrived, but went to an outkeeper. Jack and Jill, by Sampson, a red setter of Edward Marjoribank’s, appear in 1875. In 1878, Sambo (H. Meux’s) out of Topsey had Zoe, and finally Sweep, “bred by Ilchester.” Crocus was given to Sir Dudley and produced three yellow puppies in 1881 out of Zoe. I have given these names since they will be referred to again when discussing the Ladykirk breed, and also to show that the cross of a black dog with a yellow bitch almost invariably produced yellow puppies. We also found these characteristics most strongly marked in the Ilchester breed. After about 1890, the bloodhound cross was introduced at Guisachan, largely for tracking purposes, and there is a definite mention also, on a loose sheet, of a sandy coloured bloodhound having been used.
As a boy, brought up among my father’s dogs, and when staying at Guisachan in later years, I never remember hearing much of the Russian story. But it does come back to me that water spaniels were mentioned as being connected with Sir Dudley’s yellow retrievers.
As I have shown, the studbook mentions at least three importations of the Ladykirk breed. And they are most important to the theme, for Belle, the mother of the vital litter of yellow puppies, born in 1868, was one of them.
There is no explanation of the Ladykirk Breed in the studbook itself, but closely connected with it is a loose sheet of Guisachan writing paper, which Lady Pentland has also sent me, with jottings in Sir Dudley’s own handwriting, dating from after 1884. This gives an invaluable clue, for it deals with crosses which he had used in his retriever kennel. The first entry runs:
So Tweed and Belle were Tweed Water Spaniels! But what was that Tweed variety? There even seems great doubt as to what a water spaniel in 1868 looked like. No one seems able to tell me. The Natural History Museum has no record, but Dr. Parker, Keeper of Zoology, has most sent me a quotation from Ash, 1927, Dogs, Their History and Development.
Robin, Yellow Retriever, and Wallace, Deerhound. By Van der Weyde, about 1880.
… the English water-spaniel, first depicted by Bewick, a collie-like dog, was probably a cross between the rough waterdog, or poodle, and the springer spaniel or setter.
Between Bewick’s time and that of Toplin, to judge from the illustration in Toplin’s work, the water-spaniel had been so constantly crossed with the springer as to result in a dog of spaniel type, yet retaining the curly coat of the waterdog to some extent.
This certainly suggests a spaniel-like conformation; and some of the earlier yellow dogs had curly coats. The Kennel Club can tell me nothing. Neither can the Askews, owners of the Ladykirk, near Norham, on the Tweed, give me any information, although they have made a thorough search among their papers, photographs and pictures, Perhaps some reader could assist.
Having no further reliable information on this subject, I revert to the Ilchester breed. As I have shown, it began in 1868 with Ada, daughter of Nous and Belle and own-sister to Cowslip and to Edward Marjoribanks’s Crocus. This strain my father proceeded to develop on lines quite different from those employed at Guisachan. From the first he bred from black dogs.
I am able to give two photographs, taken from pictures, of Ada, a charming-tempered bitch, but old and blind as I remember her. One of my earliest recollections was of my father coming into lunch at Melbury, suffering from many wasp stings. Ada had walked into a nest, luckily on the bank of a pond, and my father had thrown her into the water to get rid of her assailants!
Unfortunately no record was kept of how our crosses were arranged. Certainly at first, black wavy-coats were used, and later, black Labradors. Mr. Montague Guest’s Sweep, a smooth-coat, sired more than one litter, and was probably the father of the best of our second generation, Robin, a first class worker, with a beautiful nose and mouth, and a splendid water dog. The picture of him does not do him justice. The deerhound in the picture, which is by Van der Weyde, an early exponent of photography by electric light, also came from Guisachan, one of 12 puppies presented to my mother in 1876. After Robin, retriever names are only in my memory, in no set sequence, until I come to my own dogs. Even the efforts of my sister and others in later years to put the original breeding into pedigree form have been lost.
An out-cross bitch, probably about 1895, was given to my father, I think by Lady Breadalbane. They were small, reddish dogs, mostly good workers. But they were shy breeders, produced few puppies, and the strain died out. So did our own breed in the First World War, when the raising of puppies was said to be detrimental to the interests of the country. How little we then knew! We had crosses with outside strains of yellow Labradors, but never, I think, with Colonel Eustace Radclyffe’s breed at the Hyde, Wareham. They were, I believe a separate breed altogether, said to have been initiated by the late Lord Lonsdale. We never used the bloodhound strain, but about 1900 we certainly had Guisachan crosses which showed that affinity.
To sum up, Nous, Sir Dudley Marjoribanks’s dog, from “Lord Chichester’s breed, Bought 1864,” whatever that was, was the first of the yellow retrievers. No Russian strain ever had a place in the Guisachan pedigrees, though the Ladykirk breed, which was synonymous with Tweed water spaniels, had an all-important influence upon it. The cross of Nous, and Belle, a “Ladykirk” bitch in 1868, produced the first litter of yellow retriever puppies. From these started the separate Tweedmouth-Ilchester breeds of wavy-coated yellow retrievers, carrying on side by side, but with much different planning and many varied ramifications.
Finally, I should like to thank Lady Pentland, without whose loans this article could never have been written. Lady Susan and Mr. J. Askew, of Ladykirk, for their efforts to discover something about Tweed water spaniels, and Dr. Parker, Keeper of Zoology at South Kensington, for his help.
Origin of the Field Golden Retriever
Augie, a Golden from Tennessee, is believed to have been the oldest Golden Retriever. She lived 20 years and 11 months.What is the difference between a field and show Golden Retriever? ›
Field bred golden retrievers are athletes that were bred to work all day, while show golden retrievers are dogs that are bred for a certain look. They're both wonderful dogs and with the right training, can make great family pets.What is the rarest Golden Retriever? ›
The rarest Golden Retriever color is commonly accepted as the rich and vibrant red shade. Goldens with red coloring can often be mistaken for Irish Setters, and typically have straighter and shorter hair that doesn't feather as much around the legs and tail.How old is Auggie the Golden Retriever? ›
Augie the Golden Retriever celebrated her 20th birthday – making her the oldest Golden ever. She was 20 years and 11 months when she passed away peacefully at home in Oakland, Tennessee.How long do Auggie dogs live? ›
A healthy Auggie dog can look forward to a long life of up to 15 years. Dietary requirements are pretty much standard and may change according to the different stages of life.Who is the oldest dog alive today? ›
|1||Bluey||29 years, 160 days|
|2||Taffy||27 years, 211 days|
|3||Adjutant||27 years, 98 days|
Besides the different overall appearance, field retrievers also have darker coats that come in different shades from gold to red. Their coat is also shorter and not as dense as that of show golden retrievers. Having a shorter coat means field golden retriever puppies shed less than traditional goldens.What are the 3 types of Golden Retrievers? ›
2. There are three types of Golden Retrievers. While you might think all Golden Retrievers look very similar, the breed actually has three different colors -- golden, light golden, and dark golden -- as well as three different types -- English, Canadian, and American.Are girl or boy Golden Retrievers calmer? ›
Female golden retrievers tend to be calmer than males. While both require attention, the females are slightly less high maintenance. This means they will welcome your affection and seek it out when they want it, but they will also do their own thing if they have had their fill of attention.What is the smartest retriever? ›
The Labrador retriever is known for self-training—it can and wants to learn from humans, not by being taught but by watching and imitating.
How much does an Auggie dog cost? On average, these adorable little crossbred puppies cost somewhere between $600-$800. This price all depends on who you adopt your Auggie from as well as their particular breeding.What is Auggie full name? ›
Auggie (August) Pullman is ten years old.What is August's dog's full name? ›
Auggie's new dog's name is Bear. Throughout the novel, Auggie's first dog, Daisy, was his best companion.What breed of dog has longest life expectancy? ›
The smaller breeds of dogs tend to live the longest. Yorkshire terriers, Chihuahuas, Dachshunds, Toy Poodles and Lhasa Apsos are the breeds who typically live the longest with these averaging a lifespan of up to 20 years. This is much higher than the average lifespan of a dog which is between 10 and 13 years.Are auggies cuddly? ›
Whether a puppy or fully grown, the Auggie is downright cute. They have big ears and a long tail that wags to express delight. Their blue eyes are captivating, and their soft fur is perfect for cuddling. The Auggie's coat can come in various colors, mainly due to the diversity of hybrid breeds.Do auggies like water? ›
Some Aussies like water and some don't. Similar to humans, dogs have preferences too. However, from our online survey, we know that most Australian Shepherd owners agree their dog loves to play in water.How old is a 30 year old dog? ›
30 in human years is roughly 133 in dog years!How old is a dog at 17 years? ›
|Dog Age||Human Age|
Fact #1: Golden Retrievers Live An Average Of 10-12 Years
The average golden retriever lifespan is 10-12 years, which is about the same as other breeds of dogs their size. For comparison, German shepherds live between 7-10 years, and labradors live between 10-12 years.
Field dogs tend to have very little coat and be much leaner/less bone OR much heavier/chunky. They also tend to be hyperactive and lousy family dogs. Most "field bred" dogs are NOT bred to be balanced, or even intelligence, but to win field trials.
Field-Bred Golden Retriever
They have a smaller stature than other Golden Retrievers, with adult males standing at 21-23 inches and females at 21-22 inches. Males can weigh between 60 and 70 pounds and females between 50 and 65 pounds. Field-bred Goldens are ideal for people who spend a lot of time outdoors.
Goldens are outgoing, trustworthy, and eager-to-please family dogs, and relatively easy to train.Which is the best golden retriever? ›
American Golden Retriever
Today, they consistently rank in the top 10 of the American Kennel Club's most popular breeds, especially for families. Tamm says this variation is usually more lanky, less stocky, and has more 'feathery' fur.
One of the most important ways to tell if a golden retriever is purebred is through its paperwork and a proper pedigree. The largest dog registry in the United States is the American Kennel Club (AKC). AKC certified pedigrees contain: The name and registration number of the dog.Do golden retrievers prefer one person? ›
Golden Retrievers may have a favorite person, usually if they spend a majority of their time with that one person. However, even though the Golden Retriever can have a favorite person, they are a social breed and like to share their love with everyone most of the time.Do golden retrievers like to cuddle? ›
Goldens make the best pillows. They're unbelievably friendly and just want to spend quality time with their family members. It's a good thing they love to cuddle.At what age do golden retrievers start to calm down? ›
When Do Golden Retrievers Calm Down? Golden Retrievers are a hyper dog breed, however, like most dogs, they tend to calm down after their puppy phase, around 2 or 3 years old. Golden Retriever females of the breed tend to mature faster obedience-wise than males, so they are more likely to be calmer overall.What age are golden retrievers most difficult? ›
The adolescence period starts about the age of 5 months and lasts until they are about two to three years old. The most difficult is usually between 8 and 18 months (which is when most dogs are surrendered to rescues and shelters).What does owning a Golden Retriever say about you? ›
Golden retriever people are really great at making others feel comfortable. There's something safe and inviting about them - you have the desire to be around them and get to know them. Golden retriever lovers are easygoing and agreeable.Do golden retrievers feel lonely? ›
Golden Retrievers do get lonely. They are very affectionate and social dogs and have inherited a working drive that includes a desire to be with and please their owner. When left alone for long periods and deprived of companions, they can suffer from separation anxiety and engage in destructive behavior.
Out of all the dog breeds most commonly found in shelters, it's the Pit Bull that wins by a landslide.
North Country Beagle (aka Northern Hound)
The North Country Beagle was a breed of scent hound. The dog had known for its fast hunting abilities and its shrill voice. The breed was common for several centuries but became an extinct dog in the 19 th century.
- of 15. Labrador Retriever. There's a reason Lucy is so loyal! ...
- of 15. Bulldog. ...
- of 15. Golden Retriever. ...
- of 15. German Shepherds. ...
- of 15. Beagle. ...
- of 15. Pug. ...
- of 15. Irish Setter. ...
- of 15. Brussels Griffon.
If you don't want that much togetherness, a golden isn't for you! They must be near their humans to be happy. Be prepared to do a lot of hands on petting with your golden – they love it. Some goldens are downright needy in their desire for attention from their humans.
They have some differences in terms of their intelligence, with Golden Retrievers being the fourth most intelligent breed and Labrador Retrievers the seventh most intelligent dogs. So think about your needs and how you want to train each dog before making a decision.How much is a Navy SEAL dog? ›
Handlers are known to refer to their dogs as either a "fur missile" or a "maligator." These dogs are familiarized with gunfire, rappelling out of helicopters, riding in Zodiac boats, or even skydiving. All said, the dogs and their training cost up to $40,000 each.How much does a Navy SEAL dog cost? ›
A Belgian Malinois puppy. Fully trained Trikos PPDs cost between $55,000 and $100,000.What dog costs $50000? ›
Czechoslovakian Wolfdog – $50,000
The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is Czechoslovakia's national dog. However, it is incredibly rare, explaining why it is so expensive.
In Space (I Believe In), the details of their relationship were revealed by Auggie to Annie. Helen and Auggie were on a mission to track down Teo and had to marry for the sake of cover, although they apparently later became legally married.Why did Auggie cut off his braid? ›
In Star Wars, Padawan's cut off their braids when they become official Jedi Knights, so we can also see Auggie's decision to cut off his braid as symbolic of him coming into his own. He is ready to find his place in the world. And middle school is where this next leg of his journey begins.
They play out in the experiences of the movie's main character, August “Auggie” Pullman, a 10-year-old boy born with a facial difference he refers to as mandibulofacial dystosis, more commonly known as Treacher Collins syndrome. It is a genetic disorder that most often affects the cheek bones, jaw, chin, and ears.Does Julian bully Auggie? ›
Tushman. Although Jullian hated Auggie, he doesn't want him being attacked, killed, or assaulted. Eventually Julian confessed for being a bully and apologized to Auggie for his cruelty. Auggie later forgave him.What is Lulu the dogs real name? ›
Lulu — played in the film by three Belgian Malinois dogs named Lana, Britta, and Zuza — shares a name with and is loosely inspired by the relationship between Tatum and his late, beloved pitbull-Catahoula mix who passed away in 2018.Why does Auggie wear a helmet? ›
The helmet is symbolic of Auggie wanting to hide himself away from the world so that he doesn't get hurt by people's looks or words. He later discovers that his father threw the helmet away (they all thought it had been lost) because he didn't like Auggie hiding who he was.What happened to the dog in wonder? ›
Pullman took her to the animal hospital where X-rays and blood tests were taken. They discovered that Daisy had a huge mass in her stomach and that she was having trouble breathing. They didn't want her to suffer, so she was put to sleep, allowing her to die a painless and peaceful death.Is there a 20 year old dog? ›
A new record for the world's oldest dog living has been confirmed in Greenacres, Florida, USA. Chihuahua TobyKeith (USA, b. 9 January 2001) had his record verified at the grand old age of 21 years 66 days on 16 March 2022.How old is no longer puppy? ›
A dog is no longer a puppy between 12 to 18 months with some variation based on breed, size and personality. Smaller breeds tend to develop and reach maturity sooner, both physically and emotionally versus large to giant breeds that can take up to almost 24 months before reaching adulthood.Why did Auggie cut off his braid in Wonder? ›
In Star Wars, Padawan's cut off their braids when they become official Jedi Knights, so we can also see Auggie's decision to cut off his braid as symbolic of him coming into his own. He is ready to find his place in the world. And middle school is where this next leg of his journey begins.Why did they replace Buck the dog? ›
Retirement and Death
By the time Buck was around twelve-and-a-half, it was getting hard for him to distinguish hand signals at a distance so Ritt decided it was time for him to retire.
They play out in the experiences of the movie's main character, August “Auggie” Pullman, a 10-year-old boy born with a facial difference he refers to as mandibulofacial dystosis, more commonly known as Treacher Collins syndrome. It is a genetic disorder that most often affects the cheek bones, jaw, chin, and ears.
With some careful choices and a little planning, you can and should have a dog at any time in your life. As it turns out, when you are not a kid any longer, that may be when you want a dog most.How old was the oldest dog that died? ›
Key Points: The oldest dog ever recorded was Bluey, an Australian cattle dog who lived in Rochester, Victoria, Australia. Bluey lived 29 years and 5 months. She had a very active life working with sheep and cattle, which may have contributed to her longevity.What is the largest Golden Retriever ever? ›
EDMONTON, Canada - In just one year, an 11-year-old golden retriever named Kai has undergone the kind of transformation that seems nearly impossible. When Pam Heggie brought him home, Kai weighed in at a whopping 173 pounds.What is the hardest puppy stage? ›
The most challenging time of raising a puppy is the adolescent period. Dogs become “teenagers” and seem to forget everything they have ever been taught. This period is individual to each dog, but it may begin when he's about eight months old and continue until he's two years old.Is a dog still a puppy at 1? ›
Although all puppies are officially considered adult dogs once they reach one year old, puppies continue to grow in height and size while their bones are still developing, which takes anywhere from 6 to 24 months.Do older dogs know a puppy is a puppy? ›
Yes. Adult dogs can tell the difference between a puppy, an adolescent dog and a mature adult. Dogs behave differently at each developmental stage, and other dogs treat them accordingly.