What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (2023)

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (1)

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More than half of all Canadians see poverty on the rise in their communities today

July 17, 2018 – What does it mean to be poor in Canada? Does it mean having to rely on food banks and payday loans to make ends meet? Does it mean struggling to afford warm clothes for the winter? What about having to live far away from work or school?

A new, two-part study from the Angus Reid Institute examines the state of poverty in Canada by looking at lived experiences, rather than income, with some striking results.

This first chapter of the report finds fully one-in-five Canadian adults (21%) say an inability to afford dental care has been a chronic problem for them in their lives. One-in-six are routinely unable to afford new clothes or good-quality groceries, and one-in-seven have struggled with inadequate housing – spaces that are too small or too far from work or school – throughout their lives.

Looking at these experiences in aggregate, ARI researchers are able to sort the Canadian population into four groups: The Struggling (16% of the total population), those On the Edge (11%), those who are Recently Comfortable (36%), and those who are Always Comfortable (37%). As their names suggest, the Struggling are facing financial challenges that are negatively affecting their quality of life, and those On the Edge are not far from joining them.

Between these two groups, more than one-quarter of the Canadian population (27%) could be described as experiencing notable financial hardship today.

More Key Findings:What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (2)

  • Almost one-in-three Canadians (31%) feel “very stressed about money” on a regular basis – either “often” or “all the time
  • More than half of Canadians (52%) believe poverty has been increasing where they live in recent years. Fewer than one-in-ten (9%) say poverty has been on the decline in that time
  • Three-in-ten Canadians (30%) are pessimistic about their personal financial situation over the next few years
  • More Canadians believe their children’s generation will be worse off (43% do) than themselves than believe they will be better off (32%)


  • Introduction

  • Poverty as a lived experience

  • Meet the four segments

  • Who are the Struggling?

  • Is the struggle self-perpetuating?

  • Haves or have-nots? How the Struggling see themselves

  • Many more see themselves on the edge

  • Visible poverty in Canadian communities

  • Notes on methodology


This special Angus Reid Institute study on poverty and economic struggle in Canada today sought to capture personal experiences with – and attitudes toward – this topic. The study will be released in two chapters.

This first chapter of the report on the findings of this study will focus on defining and quantifying poverty in Canada through the day-to-day economic struggles of Canadians. It will also look at poor Canadians’ self-perceptions, as well as the financial anxieties of Canadians across the spectrum of personal experience with poverty and deprivation.

Chapter two of this report, to be released in the coming weeks, will deal with attitudes toward poverty in Canada, including empathy for the poor, views of governmental handling of this file, and support for various proposals for alleviating poverty.

Poverty as a lived experience

The Canadian government has no official definition of poverty. Instead, it uses a variety of income-based measures to facilitate comparisons between Canada and other countries, and between Canadian cities, regions, and provinces.

This Angus Reid Institute survey sought to quantify economic struggles in a different way, relying on self-reported personal experiences to provide a sense of the relative ease or difficulty with which Canadians are able to make ends meet.

Because this study was conducted online, those living in extreme poverty – without access to the Internet or a smartphone on which to take the survey – are likely underrepresented in the sample. As such, the findings of this study should be considered low-end estimates of the actual prevalence of the experiences and attitudes in question.

Respondents were asked about a dozen specific money-related scenarios, ranging from having to forgo relative luxuries like movies (44% of Canadians say they have done this) and dinners out on a special occasion (46%), to more serious instances of deprivation like having to use a food bank (16%) or being unable to afford warm winter clothes (17%). In addition to these four items, the following scenarios were canvassed:

  • Using a “pay day loan” type service that offers access to cash but at higher interest rates (11% of Canadians have done this in their lives)
  • Being late paying rent or mortgage (18%)
  • Being unable to pay a utility bill (24%)
  • Having to borrow money for essentials like groceries or transportation (25%)
  • Living in a place that is too small or too far away from work or otherwise doesn’t meet one’s needs (27%)
  • Being unable to buy new clothes when they’re needed (39%)
  • Being unable to afford dental care (40%)
  • And, being unable to afford good quality groceries and having to buy what’s cheap instead (43%)

Canadians with children living at home were asked an additional series of questions about their ability to provide for them. Nearly one-in-five (18%) say they can’t always afford to feed their children as nutritiously as they would like, and nearly one-quarter (24%) are unable to buy their children a requested gift for Christmas or a birthday.

Three additional struggles are even more prevalent for Canadian parents and guardians:

  • Three-in-ten (31%) cannot afford for their kids to participate in after-school sports or music programs
  • Four-in-ten (41%) haven’t been able to save any money for their children’s post-secondary education
  • And an even larger number (45%) say they could not afford to pay for a tutor if their child was failing at school

Note that Canadians were asked whether they had ever experienced each of these situations in their lives. Those respondents who said yes to any of the scenarios were asked a follow-up question about the frequency of their experiences.

For many Canadians who have dealt with the circumstances asked about in this survey, the experience came long ago – when they were children – and has not recurred since. For others, these challenges are a more recent occurrence, or have been ongoing for most of their lives.

The following graph shows the same list of situations, but with bars showing only the percentage of Canadians who have either experienced each one chronically throughout their lives or recently began to experience each one. This provides a rough approximation of the number of Canadians who are currently struggling with each issue on the list.

(Video) Canada's poverty problem

Each of the individual items on this list tells the story of a segment of the Canadian population that is struggling. Even the four per cent of respondents who either recently began taking out pay day loans or have been doing so on an ongoing basis throughout their lives represents the equivalent of more than a million adults who feel they must turn to a loan practice frequently described as “predatory.”

Likewise, the equivalent of more than 1.5 million Canadian adults say they recently began getting food from a food bank or a similar service – or have had to rely on such services all their lives. This total is significantly higher than the estimated 850,000 people who use food banks each month, a likely by-product of the broader scope of this ARI question.

Other, less-severe struggles are even more prevalent. One-in-seven Canadians say they live in a place that doesn’t meet their needs because they can’t afford to move elsewhere, and one-in-six can’t afford to buy new clothes or good-quality groceries.

Each of these experiences, by itself, is a form of deprivation due to a lack of funds. Taken together, Canadians’ interactions with the items on this list paint a detailed picture of economic hardship in Canada today.

Angus Reid Institute researchers combined respondents’ answers to the 12 scenarios on the list to derive the four segments of the Canadian population shown in the graph that follows. The following section will discuss these segments, and how they were derived, in greater detail.

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (3)

Meet the four segments

Based on their experiences with economic hardship, Canadians can be grouped into four broad categories. They are:

  • The Struggling (16% of the total population): Members of this group have dealt with at least four of the 12 items on the list in their lives, and the vast majority of them (77%) have been experiencing at least one on an ongoing basis throughout their lives. As the group’s name suggests, these Canadians are struggling financially. Membership in this group overlaps significantly with traditional, income-based measures of poverty.
  • Those On the Edge (11%): Members of this group have experienced at least three of the 12 items on the list in their lives, but unlike the Struggling, they’re more likely to have only recently begun facing these economic challenges. They tend to have encountered fewer of the scenarios on the list than the Struggling, and on a less-frequent basis, but they are nevertheless “on the edge” of serious difficulty.
  • Those who are Recently Comfortable (36%): This group’s members have all experienced at least one item on the list at some point in their lives, but for most of them (59%) their brushes with deprivation came long ago and have not recurred. Significantly fewer members of this group have recently begun facing any of the scenarios listed or had ongoing struggles in their lives. In general, members of this group know what it’s like for money to be tight, even if it’s not that way for them right now.
  • And, those who are Always Comfortable (37%): These Canadians are overwhelmingly untouched by the 12 scenarios canvassed in this survey. More than nine-in-ten in this group (92%) have never experienced any of these issues in their lives. The remaining 8 per cent have only the most limited exposure to financial difficulty, having had to forego dinners out or visits to the movie theatre on occasion in their lives.

It should be noted that these four groups of Canadians exist along a continuum. Respondents were assigned a “score” between 10 and 50 based on their answers. Each group includes respondents who scored within a specific range. For greater detail on how the scores were assigned and how the ranges were determined, see notes on methodology at the end of this release.

That said, looking at the percentage of each group that reports having ever had each of the 12 experiences asked about in this survey helps illuminate the differences between segments of the continuum.

As seen in the following table, those in the Struggling group are much more likely to have faced each of the financial challenges included in the list, while those in the other groups are progressively less likely to do so. Note that this is especially the case on more extreme scenarios like being late on a mortgage or rent payment, or not being able to afford warm winter clothing:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (4)

Who are the struggling?

The one-in-six Canadian adults who qualify as Struggling according to this measure have a lot in common with those who fit the traditional characteristics of poverty in Canada. Like those who might be called “poor” based on income alone, the Struggling group tends to include larger numbers of Indigenous people, visible minorities, people with disabilities, LGBTQ people, women, and people with high school education or less.

The proportion of each of these demographics in each segment is summarized in the following infographic (click on the image to see a larger version).

Measuring economic hardship by personal experience also yields some surprising differences from traditional definitions of poverty, however. First, and foremost, segmenting Canadians by their personal histories with financial struggle leads to groups that don’t fit neatly into low, middle, or high-income categories.

Household income is highly correlated with these four segments, to be sure, but perhaps not as highly as might be expected. While the average household income in each group ascends from the Struggling to the On the Edge to the Recently Comfortable to the Always Comfortable, as seen in the following graph, there is also significant variation within the groups.

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (6)

More than one-in-five of the Struggling (22%), for instance, come from households earning between $50,000 and $100,000 per year – well above the low-income cut-offs for an individual or even a family of four. Their experiences with the 12 scenarios on the list nevertheless indicate that they are facing genuine financial difficulty, perhaps as a result of factors not captured by questions about their income, such as debt, the cost of living in their areas, or the expenses associated with raising children.

The following graph shows the distribution of income within each segment:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (7)

Another unusual hallmark of the Struggling group that makes them distinct from strictly income-based segments of the population that could be called “poor” is their age. Those who are Struggling are overwhelmingly under age 55 (85% of them are). Those ages 55 and older, meanwhile, are overrepresented among the Always Comfortable group, suggesting that – though many of them may be on fixed incomes in retirement – they are able to make ends meet in most situations.

This differs significantly from income-based measures of poverty, which typically find older people more likely to have lower incomes.

Looking at this data in a slightly different way, fully one-third (34%) of both the 18-34 and 35-54 age groups find themselves in either the Struggling or On the Edge groups, while among those ages 55 and older, the percentage in these two groups totals just 15 per cent.

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This significant age gap is likely correlated with a couple of things: First, most of those in the 55-plus group are members of the Baby Boom generation, who benefitted significantly from post-war prosperity in the mid-to-late 20th Century. It largely does not include the older, “Silent” generation, who were children during the Great Depression.

Second, poverty and life-expectancy are highly correlated: People who experience significant economic hardship in their lives are simply less likely to live to old age.

Is the struggle self-perpetuating?

In an era of wage stagnation and growing economic inequality, both in Canada and across the world, many Canadians find themselves dissatisfied with their personal economic situations and pessimistic about the future. This is especially true of the Struggling, who overwhelmingly express dissatisfaction with their current financial situations:

In a similar vein, the Struggling are twice as likely to say their financial situation has been worsening than to say it has been improving over the last few years.

Notably, only those in the Always Comfortable cohort are more likely to say their finances have been improving than worsening. Every other segment offers a much gloomier account of their recent fortunes, as seen in the graph that follows.

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (8)

Poverty is often described as a cycle: People who grow up in low-income households tend to go on to be low-income adults. Higher economic classes also tend to be self-perpetuating, with people who grow up in relative wealth more likely to maintain or improve upon their parents’ standard of living.

Research has shown that Canada has more intergenerational economic mobility, overall, than the United States and the United Kingdom, but that this mobility varies dramatically from province to province and between areas within provinces. Generally speaking, people who grow up in Canada’s largest cities and their suburbs tend to have greater economic mobility later in life than those who grow up in rural areas – especially northern portions of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Ontario, and British Columbia’s northwest coast.

When Canadians are asked directly whether they see themselves as better or worse off than their parents were at their age, regional variations are minimal (see comprehensive tables for greater detail).

That said, there is significant variation on this question across the four segments, with those who are Struggling most likely to see themselves as worse off than their parents, and those On the Edge not far behind:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (9)

This finding – that those who are experiencing the most symptoms of poverty are also the most likely to say that they’ve been losing ground relative to where their parents were at a similar life stage – suggests that the self-perpetuating nature of economic class is alive and well in Canada.

That said, it’s interesting to note that all four segments express significant concern when it comes to the next generation. Asked whether their own children – or, if they don’t have any, people of the equivalent age – will be better off or worse off than themselves, Canadians are almost uniformly pessimistic:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (10)

Interestingly, this pessimism about the next generation doesn’t seem to translate to pessimism about one’s own situation. While there is a sharp skew in outlook across the segments, even the Struggling are as likely to be optimistic as pessimistic about their own personal financial prospects.

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (11)

Haves or have-nots? How the Struggling see themselves

Discussions about poverty and income inequality are often framed in terms of two broad groups: The haves, and the have-nots. As previous ARI research – conducted ahead of the 2015 federal election – has shown, Canadians are not confident about sorting themselves into these groups.

Today, as back then, there is no clear consensus among Canadians on which group best describes them. Roughly one-third (33%) see themselves as haves, and only a slightly smaller number (30%) say they are have-nots. The rest (37%) are unsure how to categorize themselves.

The groups’ self-perceptions on this question tend to follow a predictable pattern based on their lived experiences, with those on the low end of the continuum more likely to consider themselves have-nots, and those on the higher end more likely to say they are haves. That said, it’s notable that fewer than half of those in the Always Comfortable segment see themselves as haves:

Looking at this concept of financial self-assessment in a slightly different way yields similar results. Asked if they have enough money to live at a standard generally considered “comfortable” or “typical” in Canada today, three-quarters of those in the Struggling group (75%) say no. Those in the Always Comfortable group, meanwhile, overwhelmingly say yes, indicating that they see themselves in the terms their group’s name suggests, even if they don’t necessarily view themselves as among society’s “haves.”

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (12)

Respondents who either said “no” to this question, described themselves as “have-nots,” or both, were asked a follow-up question about their reasons for feeling this way. Nearly everyone in the Struggling group, as well as significant portions of the other three groups, were asked the follow-up question.

Nearly four-in-ten (38%) blame low wages for their perceived lot in life, and the same number point a finger at high housing costs. Other common reasons people who feel they are falling behind economically offer for their plights include physical disabilities that prevent them from working (28%), and the inherent unfairness of Canada’s economic system (25%). Reasons mentioned by at least one-in-five respondents who were asked this question are summarized in the following graph:

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What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (13)

Because this question was asked based on respondents’ perceptions of their economic status, rather than based on the reported experiences on which the four segments were based, there are respondents from each segment who were asked this question.

Looking only at the two groups with the highest level of economic struggles, some significant differences emerge. While the Struggling and the On the Edge cite low wages and high housing costs as key reasons for their economic troubles at similar rates, there are large gaps in how they perceive other factors. Most notably, 44 per cent of those in the Struggling segment say they have physical health issues that can interfere with work, compared to 26 per cent of the On the Edge who say the same.

Similar gaps can be seen between these two poorer groups on having “always struggled financially,” as well as having mental health or anxiety issues that can interfere with work, as seen in the following graph:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (14)

Many more see themselves on the edge

While those in the Struggling and On the Edge groups tend to have a greater amount of financial stress in their lives, they hardly have a monopoly on such worries. Indeed, economic anxiety is most acute among the two groups at the low end of this spectrum, but it exists in significant levels across all four segments.

Asked how often they “feel very stressed about money,” nearly seven-in-ten among the Struggling and more than half of those On the Edge report doing so “often” or “all the time.” Likewise, it’s notable that these concerns manifest themselves at least “sometimes” for those in the other two groups:

The type of money-related stress experienced likely varies significantly across the four groups, of course. For those who are Always Comfortable, feeling stressed about money almost certainly manifests itself in a more abstract way: as anxiety about potential future problems, rather than about problems currently being faced.

Consider another question in this survey, which asked respondents how well they felt they could manage an unexpected expense. Among the Struggling, nearly half said they could not handle any such expense because their budgets are already too stretched. Two-thirds of the Always Comfortable, meanwhile, felt they could manage a sudden expense of more than $1,000:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (15)

Similarly, when asked how significant an unexpected windfall of $1,000 would be in their lives, those in the Struggling group mostly say it would make “a big difference,” while those in the Always Comfortable segment tend to downplay its significance:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (16)

That said, while those who in the Always Comfortable or Recently Comfortable segments are in considerably better financial situations than those in the other two segments, they still experience anxiety about money-related issues. Those who are Recently Comfortable, especially, worry regularly about how they will support themselves in retirement – though not nearly as frequently as those in the lower two groups do – as seen in the graph that follows.

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (17)

Two other worries – about paying off debts and not being able to buy something one could really use – are less-often preoccupying for those in the comfortable groups. These concerns stand out as the purview of those on the lower end of the lived-experience spectrum, with two-thirds of the Struggling (64%) saying they frequently feel bad for not being able to buy something they or their family could really use, and a similar number worrying this often about how they will pay off their debts:

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (18)

Visible poverty in Canadian communities

Regardless of where they fall on the continuum of economic hardship, Canadians generally think the number of people living in poverty in their communities is increasing.

Overall, fewer than one-in-ten Canadians (9%) say poverty is on the decline in Canada today, while fully half (52%) say it is on the rise.

The Struggling and those On the Edge, who are closer to poverty themselves, are especially likely to say it has increased in prevalence in their communities over the last few years, but significant numbers across all four segments say this is the case:

When asked to estimate the number of people living in poverty in their communities, Canadians, on average, put the number at about one-in-three (34.8%). Those in the Struggling and On the Edge groups tend to offer higher estimates, while those in the other two segments offer lower ones, as seen in the graph that follows.

What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (19)

It should be noted that even the lowest estimate in the preceding graph is significantly higher than official estimates based on income, which put the percentage of Canadians living in poverty between 9 and 13 per cent.

Canadians perceive similarly high numbers of people in their communities facing specific poverty-related circumstances, including one-in-four (24%) who say either some or lots of people where they live are experiencing homelessness, and more than one-in-three (36%) who say either some or lots of people are hungry and having to miss meals.

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What does poverty look like in Canada? Survey finds one-in-four experience notable economic hardship - Angus Reid Institute (20)

These findings, along with the spectrum of lived experience and its four segments, provide a detailed picture of both the real and perceived scope and scale of poverty in Canada today. But how do Canadians think about poverty and the poor? What are their attitudes toward this complex societal problem? And what sorts of solutions to it would they support?

Chapter two of this report will answer these questions and more, focusing on Canadians’ attitudes, sense of empathy for the struggling, and support for various policy proposals aimed at alleviating poverty in their country.

Notes on methodology

The four groups discussed in this survey are the result of an index based on the two-part lived experience question asked in this survey. Respondents were scored based on their answers to 10 of the 12 scenarios (all of the scenarios on the list except for “don’t have the money to go to a movie or similar outing” and “can’t afford to go out for dinner for a special occasion”).

Respondents who said they had not experienced an item received 5 points and were not asked the follow-up question about how frequently the scenario had occurred in their lives. Those who had experienced an item were scored based on their responses to the follow-up question, receiving 1 point if they said the experience was “ongoing in my life,” 2 points if the experience took place “from time to time,” 3 points if the experience was “more recent,” and 4 points if the experience happened “long ago” and has not happened since.

Adding up these scores yielded a total score for each respondent, ranging from 10 (all items “ongoing in my life”) to 50 (no to all items). The four segments correspond to four segments of this range. Those scoring 10 – 35 are the Struggling, those scoring 36 – 40 are On the Edge, those scoring 41 – 49 are the Recently Comfortable, and those scoring 50 are the Always Comfortable.

The Angus Reid Institute (ARI) was founded in October 2014 by pollster and sociologist, Dr. Angus Reid. ARI is a national, not-for-profit, non-partisan public opinion research foundation established to advance education by commissioning, conducting and disseminating to the public accessible and impartial statistical data, research and policy analysis on economics, political science, philanthropy, public administration, domestic and international affairs and other socio-economic issues of importance to Canada and its world.

For detailed results by age, gender, region, education, and other demographics, click here.

For detailed results by the four segments, click here.

Click here for the full report including tables and methodology

Click here for the questionnaire used in this survey


Shachi Kurl, Executive Director: 604.908.1693 shachi.kurl@angusreid.org @shachikurl

Ian Holliday, Research Associate: 604.442.3312 ian.holliday@angusreid.org

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How big of an issue is poverty in Canada? ›

Canada's Official Poverty Line

The line shows that the poverty rate was 15.0% in 2012. The line shows a decrease in the poverty rate over the most recent years, highlighting the following data points: 14.5% in 2015, 11.2% in 2018, 10.3% in 2019, and 6.4% in 2020, the lowest point on the graph.

When did poverty become an issue in Canada? ›

National measures of poverty in Canada date to the 1960s, when poverty became a public issue. Much of the concern was generated by the appalling living conditions under which many of Canada's Aboriginal people and elderly lived, and also by large regional income disparities.

Why are Canada's first peoples experiencing poverty? ›

Poverty and Indigenous communities

The poverty experienced today by Indigenous communities across the country is a direct result of the dispossession of Indigenous peoples of their lands and livelihoods, and their forced dependency on the colonial state.

What is the most common cause of poverty? ›

The United Nations Social Policy and Development Division identifies “inequalities in income distribution and access to productive resources, basic social services, opportunities” and more as a cause for poverty. Groups like women, religious minorities, and racial minorities are the most vulnerable.

What are the two main causes of poverty in? ›

Causes of Poverty
  • The low level of economic development under British colonial rule. ...
  • Unequal distribution of land and resources is another vital cause for poverty in India.
  • To fulfil the demands of social obligations and religious ceremonies the poor community end up spending a lot which leads to poverty.

What is the biggest reason of poverty? ›

Less productivity in agriculture: In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.

Is poverty getting better or worse in Canada? ›

The poverty rate in Canada has decreased steadily since 2015.

Is Canada a rich or a poor country? ›

Being rich in a poor country also has costs.
RankCountryGDP-PPP ($)
141 more rows
1 Aug 2022

Who lives in poverty in Canada? ›

The poverty rate in 2019 was 10.1% based on Canada's Official Poverty Line. This means that 3.7 million Canadians, or 1 in 10, were living in poverty in 2019.
What we know about poverty in Canada.
Indigenous people living off-reserve153,000 (19.5%)129,000 (18.1%)
19 more rows
7 Apr 2022

What is considered poor for a single person? ›

For a single person, the 2022 federal poverty level is $13,590 in the continental U.S. For each additional person in the household, the federal poverty level increased by $4,720 (so for a household of three, for example, the 2022 federal poverty level is $23,030).

How do people behave in poverty? ›

It can be correlated with a range of antisocial, immoral, and imprudent behaviors, including substance abuse, gambling, insolvency, poor health habits, and crime.

What are major types of poverty explain with example? ›

There are two types of poverty: absolute poverty and relative poverty. Both of these kinds of poverty are concerned with money and consumption. Ans. Poverty is mostly seen in rural regions and among young people; 80 percent of the extreme poor and 75 percent of the moderate poor reside in rural areas.

What is considered low income in Canada 2022? ›

The federal benefit will be available to applicants with an adjusted net income below $35,000 for families, or below $20,000 for individuals, who pay at least 30 per cent of their adjusted net income on rent.

Who is most likely to live in poverty in Canada? ›

Among racialized groups, 10.8% of South Asian, 15.3% of Chinese and 12.4% of Black Canadians lived in poverty in 2020. The prevalence of poverty varied markedly between racialized groups 1 and regions. For example, the poverty rate among Black Canadians was 15.8% in Winnipeg and 9.7% in Montréal.

Which province has the highest poverty rate? ›

South Africa's poorest province is the Eastern Cape. The wealthiest province is Gauteng. Around 880,000 of the mostly rural Eastern Cape's people live in poverty. In Gauteng, a city region with the best opportunities for jobs, some 610,000 people live in poverty.

What are the 5 basic economic problems? ›

The 5 basic problems of an economy are as follows:
  • What to produce and what quantity to produce?
  • How to produce?
  • For whom to produce the goods?
  • How efficient are the resources being utilised?
  • Is the economy growing?

What are the 10 basic economic problems? ›

Micro economic problems
  • The problem of externalities. The economic problem of pollution. ...
  • Environmental issues. ...
  • Monopoly. ...
  • Inequality/poverty. ...
  • Volatile prices. ...
  • Irrational behaviour. ...
  • Recession. ...
  • Inflation.
20 Nov 2020

What is the biggest issue with poverty? ›

Global poverty is one of the most pressing problems that the world faces today. The poorest in the world are often undernourished, without access to basic services such as electricity and safe drinking water; they have less access to education, and suffer from much poorer health.

What are examples of hardships? ›

The most common examples of hardship include:
  • Illness or injury.
  • Change of employment status.
  • Loss of income.
  • Natural disasters.
  • Divorce.
  • Death.
  • Military deployment.

What are examples of hardships in life? ›

People experience all kinds of adversity in life. There are personal experiences, such as illness, loss of a loved one, abuse, bullying, job loss, and financial instability. There is the shared reality of tragic events in the news, such as terrorist attacks, mass shootings, and natural disasters.

What is the most problem in Canada? ›

Canada's Poverty: Poverty affects approximately six million individuals in Canada, and it may touch anyone. People of various ages, economic origins, and ethnicities are affected by poverty. Poverty is a multifaceted issue involving unemployment, investment returns, substandard housing, health policies, and education.

What is the most important issue in Canada right now? ›

  • Mental health issues.
  • Controversial abortion laws.
  • Freedom of speech.
  • Gambling Addiction Issues in Canada.
  • Family violence.
  • Violence against women.
  • Prostitution.
  • Social policy decisions for drugs and alcohol.

What are the 5 major environmental problems in Canada? ›

Here are the top five issues plaguing our environment today:
  • Climate Change and Global Warming. ...
  • Water Pollution and Scarcity. ...
  • Environmental Pollution. ...
  • Deforestation. ...
  • Ecosystems and Endangered Species.
26 Jul 2022

How has poverty changed over time in Canada? ›

Based on data from the 2021 Census of Population, the poverty rate in Canada was 8.1% in 2020, down from 14.5% in 2015. Poverty decreased for people in all age groups during this period, but declines were larger among children and youth 17 years and under.

Why is poverty still a problem in Canada? ›

Around the country, factors such as lack of employment and affordable housing – combined with the expense of higher education and training programs – can affect many families. Some families in Canada are refugees, struggling to overcome language barriers to employment.

What are manifestations of poverty today? ›

Poverty entails more than the lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making.

How can the poverty issue in Canada be improved? ›

Dignity: Lifting Canadians out of poverty by ensuring basic needs—such as safe and affordable housing, healthy food and health care are met. Opportunity and Inclusion: Helping Canadians join the middle class by promoting full participation in society and equality of opportunity.

What challenges do people living in poverty face? ›

They may lack access to safe work conditions, housing, education, health services, or clean water and basic sanitation. They may be unable participate in political life or vindicate their rights in court due to their poverty.

What are 5 effects of poverty? ›

Poverty is associated with substandard housing, hunger, homelessness, inadequate childcare, unsafe neighborhoods, and under-resourced schools.

What are the 4 aspects of poverty? ›

Lack of food and nutritional security, income security, social security and human security build up the ingredients of poverty.

What are the 7 types of poverty? ›

  • Situational poverty.
  • Generational poverty.
  • Absolute poverty.
  • Relative poverty.
  • Urban poverty.
  • Rural poverty.
12 Nov 2021

Who is to blame for poverty in Canada? ›

Nearly half (48%) say the federal government is responsible. Four in ten (39%) say poverty is the responsibility of provincial governments, while only 11% hold municipal governments mainly responsible for helping the poor.

What city in Canada has the highest poverty rate? ›


What income is considered middle class in Canada? ›

According to the OECD, the middle class of a country is anyone who earns between 75 percent and 200 percent of the median household income after tax. For Canadians, that shakes out to be families that earn anywhere from about $45,000 to $120,000 per annual income.


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